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1. A concise overview on historical black carbon in ice cores and remote lake sediments in the northern hemisphere
Poonam Thapa,JianZhong Xu,Bigyan Neupane
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (3): 179-194.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20055.
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Black Carbon (BC), as a driver of environmental change, could significantly impact the snow by accelerating melting and decreasing albedo. Systematic documentation of BC studies is crucial for a better understanding of its spatial and temporal trends. This study reviewed the BC studies in the ice core and remote lake sediments and their sources in the northern hemisphere. The literature surveyed points to around 2.9 to 3.7 times increase of BC in the European Alps and up to a three-fold increase of BC in the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP) after the onset of industrialization in Europe and Asia, respectively. BC concentration from Greenland ice core showed seven times increase with an interrupted trend after 1950's. South Asian emissions were dominant in the HTP along with a contribution from the Middle East, whereas Western European and local emissions were responsible for the change in BC concentration in the European Alps. In the Arctic, contributions from North America, Europe and Asia persisted. Similarly, a historical reconstruction of lake sediments records demonstrates the effects of emissions from long-range transport, sediment focusing, local anthropogenic activities, precipitation and total input of flux on the BC concentration.

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2. Discussion on pile axial load test methods and their applicability in cold regions
JiaWei Gao,Ji Chen,Xin Hou,QiHang Mei,YongHeng Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 267-281.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.005.
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The measurement of pile axial load is of great significance to determining pile foundation design parameters such as skin friction and end bearing capacity and analyzing load transfer mechanisms. Affected by the temperature and ice content of frozen ground, the interface contact relationship between pile foundation and frozen soil is complicated, making pile axial load measurements more uncertain than that in non-frozen ground. Therefore, it is necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of the current pile axial load test methods. Four methods are systematically reviewed: vibrating wire sensors, strain gauges, sliding micrometers, and optical fiber strain sensors. At the same time, the applicability of the four test methods in frozen soil regions is discussed in detail. The first two methods are mature and commonly used. The sliding micrometer is only suitable for short-term measurement. While the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain gauge meets the monitoring requirements, the Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer (BOTDR) needs further verification. This paper aims to provide a technical reference for selecting and applying different methods in the pile axial load test for the stability study and bearing capacity assessment of pile foundations in cold regions.

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3. Light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan: concentrations and potential impact on albedo reduction
YuLan Zhang, ShiChang Kang, Min Xu, Michael Sprenger, TanGuang Gao, ZhiYuan Cong, ChaoLiu Li, JunMing Guo, ZhiQiang Xu, Yang Li, Gang Li, XiaoFei Li, YaJun Liu, HaiDong Han
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (2): 97-111.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00097
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Light-absorbing impurities on glaciers are important factors that influence glacial surface albedo and accelerate glacier melt. In this study, the quantity of light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan, Central Asia, was measured. We found that the average concentrations of black carbon was 2,180 ng/g, with a range from 250 ng/g to more than 10,000 ng/g. The average concentrations of organic carbon and mineral dust were 1,738 ng/g and 194 μg/g, respectively. Based on simulations performed with the Snow Ice Aerosol Radiative model simulations, black carbon and dust are responsible for approximately 64% and 9%, respectively, of the albedo reduction, and are associated with instantaneous radiative forcing of 323.18 W/m2 (ranging from 142.16 to 619.25 W/m2) and 24.05 W/m2 (ranging from 0.15 to 69.77 W/m2), respectively. For different scenarios, the albedo and radiative forcing effect of black carbon is considerably greater than that of dust. The estimated radiative forcing at Keqikaer Glacier is higher than most similar values estimated by previous studies on the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps as a result of black carbon enrichment by melt scavenging. Light-absorbing impurities deposited on Keqikaer Glacier appear to mainly originate from central Asia, Siberia, western China (including the Taklimakan Desert) and parts of South Asia in summer, and from the Middle East and Central Asia in winter. A footprint analysis indicates that a large fraction (>60%) of the black carbon contributions on Keqikaer Glacier comes from anthropogenic sources. These results provide a scientific basis for regional mitigation efforts to reduce black carbon.
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4. Seasonal variation of airborne fungi of the Tiantishan Grottoes and Western Xia Museum, Wuwei, China
YuLong Duan,FaSi Wu,DongPeng He,RuiHong Xu,HuYuan Feng,Tuo Chen,GuangXiu Liu,WanFu Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (6): 522-532.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20102
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In this study, a systematic survey of cultural airborne fungi was carried out in the occurrence environments of wall paintings that are preserved in the Tiantishan Grottoes and the Western Xia Museum, China. A bio-aerosol sampler was used for sampling in four seasons in 2016. Culture-dependent and -independent methods were taken to acquire airborne fungal concentration and purified strains; by the extraction of genomic DNA, amplification of fungal ITS rRNA gene region, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, thereafter the fungal community composition and distribution characteristics of different study sites were clarified. We disclosure the main environmental factors which may be responsible for dynamic changes of airborne fungi at the sampling sites. The concentration of cultural airborne fungi was in a range from 13 to 1,576 CFU/m3, no significant difference between the two sites at the Tiantishan Grottoes, with obvious characteristics of seasonal variation, in winter and spring were higher than in summer and autumn. Also, there was a significant difference in fungal concentration between the inside and outside of the Western Xia Museum, the outside of the museum was far more than the inside of the museum in the four seasons, particularly in the winter. Eight fungal genera were detected, including Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Filobasidium as the dominant groups. The airborne fungal community structures of the Tiantishan Grottoes show a distinct characteristic of seasonal variation and spatial distribution. Relative humidity, temperature and seasonal rainfall influence airborne fungal distribution. Some of the isolated strains have the potential to cause biodeterioration of ancient wall paintings. This study provides supporting information for the pre-warning conservation of cultural relics that are preserved at local sites and inside museums.

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5. A meta-analysis of the impacts of forest logging on soil CO2 efflux
LongFei Chen,YangZhou Xiang,ZhiBin He,Jun Du,PengFei Lin,Xi Zhu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (3): 165-179.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00165
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Soil CO2 efflux, the second largest flux in a forest carbon budget, plays an important role in global carbon cycling. Forest logging is expected to have large effects on soil CO2 efflux and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. However, a comprehensive understanding of soil CO2 efflux dynamics in response to forest logging remains elusive due to large variability in results obtained across individual studies. Here, we used a meta-analysis approach to synthesize the results of 77 individual field studies to determine the impacts of forest logging on soil CO2 efflux. Our results reveal that forest logging significantly stimulated soil CO2 efflux of the growing season by 5.02%. However, averaged across all studies, non-significant effect was detected following forest logging. The large variation among forest logging impacts was best explained by forest type, logging type, and time since logging. Soil CO2 efflux in coniferous forests exhibited a significant increase (4.38%) due to forest logging, while mixed and hardwood forests showed no significant change. Logging type also had a significant effect on soil CO2 efflux, with thinning increasing soil CO2 efflux by 12.05%, while clear-cutting decreasing soil CO2 efflux by 8.63%. The time since logging also had variable effects, with higher soil CO2 efflux for 2 years after logging, and lower for 3-6 years after logging; when exceeded 6 years, soil CO2 efflux increased. As significantly negative impacts of forest logging were detected on fine root biomass, the general positive effects on soil CO2 efflux can be explained by the accelerated decomposition of organic matter as a result of elevated soil temperature and organic substrate quality. Our results demonstrate that forest logging had potentially negative effects on carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems.

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6. Characteristics of land-atmosphere energy and turbulent fluxes over the plateau steppe in central Tibetan Plateau
MaoShan Li, ZhongBo Su, YaoMing Ma, XueLong Chen, Lang Zhang, ZeYong Hu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (2): 103-115.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00103
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The land-atmosphere energy and turbulence exchange is key to understanding land surface processes on the Tibetan Plateau(TP).Using observed data for Aug.4 to Dec.3,2012 from the Bujiao observation point(BJ) of the Nagqu Plateau Climate and Environment Station(NPCE-BJ),different characteristics of the energy flux during the Asian summer monsoon(ASM) season and post-monsoon period were analyzed.This study outlines the impact of the ASM on energy fluxes in the central TP.It also demonstrates that the surface energy closure rate during the ASM season is higher than that of the post-monsoon period.Footprint modeling shows the distribution of data quality assessments(QA) and quality controls(QC) surrounding the observation point.The measured turbulent flux data at the NPCE-BJ site were highly representative of the target land-use type.The target surface contributed more to the fluxes under unstable conditions than under stable conditions.The main wind directions(180°and 210°) with the highest data density showed flux contributions reaching 100%,even under stable conditions.The lowest flux contributions were found in sectors with low data density, e.g.,90.4% in the 360°sector under stable conditions during the ASM season.Lastly,a surface energy water balance(SEWAB) model was used to gap-fill any absent or corrected turbulence data.The potential simulation error was also explored in this study.The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients(NSEs) of the observed fluxes with the SEWAB model runs were 0.78 for sensible heat flux and 0.63 for latent heat flux during the ASM season,but unrealistic values of-0.9 for latent heat flux during the post-monsoon period.
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7. Culturable bacterial diversity in hypolithic and peripheral soils in the west of the Hexi Corridor desert and its influencing factors
LiFang He,ShiWeng Li,GaoSen Zhang,XiuKun Wu,BingLin Zhang,Wei Zhang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (1): 47-58.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00047.
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Microbes inhabiting the desert respond sensitively to environmental changes and may be an indicator for changes in the desert ecosystem. Hypolithic microbial communities in the desert play a vital role in ecosystem processes such as soil formation and organic matter accumulation. This study investigated and compared the culturable bacterial community structure and diversity in hypolithic and peripheral soils, and the interaction between bacteria and environmental factors. The bacteria were isolated using four different kinds of media and identified by 16S rRNA gene-sequence analysis. The numbers of culturable bacteria in the hypolithic and peripheral soils ranged from 3.0×104 to 3.6×105 CFU/g and from 6.5×104 to 5.3×105 CFU/g, respectively, indicating that the bacteria number in peripheral soil was higher than that in hypolithic soil. A total of 98 species belonging to 34 genera were identified, among which Arthrobacter, Bacillus,and Streptomyces were found dominantly and widely distributed. The community of culturable bacteria had obvious sample specificity, and the diversity in hypolithic soil was higher than that in peripheral soil. On the regional scale, the distribution of culturable bacteria and the environmental factors showed regular changes. On the local scale, the high heterogeneity of the hypolithic environment determined the specificity of the number and species of culturable bacteria.

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8. Effect of debris on seasonal ice melt (2016-2018) on Ponkar Glacier, Manang, Nepal
Reeju Shrestha,Rijan B. Kayastha,Rakesh Kayastha
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (5): 261-271.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00261.
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Supraglacial debris is widely present on glaciers in alpine environments and its distribution greatly affects glacier melt. The present study aims to determine the effect of debris on glacier ice melt on Ponkar Glacier, Manang District, Nepal. We estimated ice melt under various debris thickness using Energy Balance (EB) model and conductive heat flux methods, which are compared with in-situ observations. Four stakes are installed on the glacier at different debris thickness of 11-40 cm. Meteorological data from March 2016 to May 2018 are obtained from the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the glacier surface at an elevation of 3,881 m a.s.l. for the energy balance calculation. Debris surface temperature and different debris depths are also measured on the glacier. The calculated ablation rates from the conductive heat flux method are 0.9, 1.62 and 0.41 cm/d on pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon, respectively, with mean debris thermal conductivity 1.04 W/(m?K). The net radiation shows little variation between the seasons, while turbulent heat flux varies in the season. Sensible heat flux was found to be highest in post-monsoon season due to a larger temperature gradient between surface and air.

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9. The influence of the underpassing frozen connecting passage on the deformation of the existing tunnel
JunHao Chen,Jian Zhang,BiJian Chen,Gen Lu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 223-233.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.001.
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Based on the engineering background of the contact channel between Shangyang and Gushan of Fuzhou Metro Line 2 undercrossing the existing tunnel line, the freezing temperature field of the contact channel, the displacement field of the existing tunnel line and the contact channel with different net distances and horizontal angles are analyzed by ANSYS finite element software and field measurement method. The obtained results indicate that during the freezing period, the temperature drops at different measuring holes are almost the same. The temperature near the bottom freezing tube drops faster than that far from the tube. It is found that the bilateral freezing technique improves the formation of the freezing wall in the intersection area. In this case, the intersection time of the cross-section is 7 days faster than that of the adjacent ordinary section. The change curve of the displacement of the surface uplift in different freezing periods with the distance from the center of the channel is "M" shaped. The maximum uplift displacement at 12 m from channel center is 25 mm. The vertical displacement of the measuring point located above the central axis of the connecting channel is large. The farther the point from the central axis, the smaller the corresponding vertical displacement. When the horizontal angle between the existing tunnel and the connecting channel is less than 60°, the existing vertical displacement of the tunnel changes rapidly with the horizontal angle, reaching 0.17 mm/°. Meanwhile, when the net distance is less than 6.1 m, the change rate of the vertical displacement of the tunnel is up to 2.4 mm/m.

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10. Comparison of sampling schemes for spatial prediction of soil organic carbon in Northern China
XuYang Wang,YuQiang Li,YuLin Li,YinPing Chen,Jie Lian,WenJie Cao
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 200-216.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00217.
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Determining an optimal sample size is a key step in designing field surveys, and is particularly important for detecting the spatial pattern of highly variable properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on 550 soil sampling points in the near-surface layer (0 to 20 cm) in a representative region of northern China’s agro-pastoral ecotone, we studied effects of four interpolation methods such as ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and radial basis function (RBF) and random subsampling (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500) on the prediction accuracy of SOC estimation. When the Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Shannon's Evenness Index (SHEI) was 2.01 and 0.67, the OK method appeared to be a superior method, which had the smallest root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean error (ME) nearest to zero. On the contrary, the UK method performed poorly for the interpolation of SOC in the present study. The sample size of 200 had the most accurate prediction; 50 sampling points produced the worst prediction accuracy. Thus, we used 200 samples to estimate the study area's soil organic carbon density (SOCD) by the OK method. The total SOC storage to a depth of 20 cm in the study area was 117.94 Mt, and its mean SOCD was 2.40 kg/m2. The SOCD kg/(C?m2) of different land use types were in the following order: woodland (3.29) > grassland (2.35) > cropland (2.19) > sandy land (1.55).

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11. Cryosphere evapotranspiration in the Tibetan Plateau: A review
KunXin Wang,YinSheng Zhang,Ning Ma,YanHong Guo,YaoHui Qiang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 355-370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00355
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Land surface actual evapotranspiration is an important process that influences the Earth's energy and water cycles and determines the water and heat transfer in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Meanwhile, the cryosphere's hydrological process is receiving extensive attention, and its water problem needs to be understood from multiple perspectives. As the main part of the Chinese cryosphere, the Tibetan Plateau faces significant climate and environmental change. There are active interaction and pronounced feedback between the environment and ETa in the cryosphere. This article mainly focuses on the research progress of ETa in the Tibetan Plateau. It first reviews the ETa process, characteristics, and impact factors of typical underlying surfaces in the Tibetan Plateau (alpine meadows, alpine steppes, alpine wetlands, alpine forests, lakes). Then it compares the temporal and spatial variations of ETa at different scales. In addition, considering the current greening of cryosphere vegetation due to climate change, it discusses the relationship between vegetation greening and transpiration to help clarify how vegetation activities are related to the regional water cycle and surface energy budget.

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12. Simulation and prediction of monthly accumulated runoff, based on several neural network models under poor data availability
JianPing Qian,JianPing Zhao,Yi Liu,XinLong Feng,DongWei Gui
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 468-481.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00468
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Most previous research on areas with abundant rainfall shows that simulations using rainfall-runoff modes have a very high prediction accuracy and applicability when using a back-propagation (BP), feed-forward, multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN). However, in runoff areas with relatively low rainfall or a dry climate, more studies are needed. In these areas—of which oasis-plain areas are a particularly good example—the existence and development of runoff depends largely on that which is generated from alpine regions. Quantitative analysis of the uncertainty of runoff simulation under climate change is the key to improving the utilization and management of water resources in arid areas. Therefore, in this context, three kinds of BP feed-forward, three-layer ANNs with similar structure were chosen as models in this paper. Taking the oasis–plain region traverse by the Qira River Basin in Xinjiang, China, as the research area, the monthly accumulated runoff of the Qira River in the next month was simulated and predicted. The results showed that the training precision of a compact wavelet neural network is low; but from the forecasting results, it could be concluded that the training algorithm can better reflect the whole law of samples. The traditional artificial neural network (TANN) model and radial basis-function neural network (RBFNN) model showed higher accuracy in the training and prediction stage. However, the TANN model, more sensitive to the selection of input variables, requires a large number of numerical simulations to determine the appropriate input variables and the number of hidden-layer neurons. Hence, The RBFNN model is more suitable for the study of such problems. And it can be extended to other similar research arid-oasis areas on the southern edge of the Kunlun Mountains and provides a reference for sustainable water-resource management of arid-oasis areas.

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13. Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 389-406.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
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Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

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14. Decomposition effects of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) flowers on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial community diversity
Jie Li,YaJun Wang,Yang Qiu,ZhongKui Xie,YuBao Zhang,CuiPing Hua
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (3): 212-222.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21056.
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Timely removal of the flower is a key agricultural measure to ensure the concentrated supply of nutrients for the growth of underground bulbs and to increase the yield of lilies. Removing flowers and returning them to the field is one of the traditional ways of treatment, and field litter is formed at this time. Previous study showed that the decomposition of litter changes the soil properties. In order to study the effects of lily litter decomposition on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial structure, three treatments were set up in reference to the Decomposition Bag Method: control (CK), Lanzhou lily flower treatment (LZF), and Zhongbai No.1 flower treatment (ZBF). The effects of lily decomposition on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial community composition were studied in order to provide a scientific basis and theoretical guidance for the planting process of Lanzhou lily. The results show that the decomposition of lily flowers significantly increased the contents of soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, soil total phosphorus and soil available potassium, and decreased soil pH. RDA shows that soil available nutrients and pH were the driving factors for the change of the soil microbial community. A short-term change of soil microenvironment caused by the decomposed lily flower is beneficial to growing the Lanzhou lily. However, under the correlation analysis of environmental factors, the long-term effects of returning the Lanzhou lily flower to the field, such as the trend of soil acidification, need to be further studied.

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15. A review of the interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere
YongJian Ding,JianPing Yang,ShengXia Wang,YaPing Chang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 329-342.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00329
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The interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere is an essential and extremely sensitive mutual action process on the earth. Due to global warming and the cryospheric melting, more and more attention has been paid to the interaction process between the cryosphere and atmosphere, especially the feedback of the cryosphere change to the atmosphere. A comprehensive review of the studies on the interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere is conducted from two aspects: (1) effects of climate change on the cryosphere or responses of the cryosphere to climate change; and (2) feedback of the cryosphere change to the climate. The response of the cryosphere to climate change is lagging. Such a lagging and cumulative effect of temperature rise within the cryosphere have resulted in a rapid change in the cryosphere in the 21st century, and its impacts have become more significant. The feedback from cryosphere change on the climate are omnifarious. Among them, the effects of sea ice loss and snow cover change, especially the Arctic sea ice loss and the Northern Hemisphere snow cover change, are the most prominent. The Arctic amplification (AA) associated with sea ice feedback is disturbing , and the feedback generated by the effect of temperature rise on snow properties in the Northern Hemisphere is also of great concern. There are growing evidence of the impact of the Arctic cryosphere melting on mid-latitude weather and climate. Weakened storm troughs, steered jet stream and amplified planetary waves associated with energy propagation become the key to explaining the links between Arctic cryosphere change and atmospheric circulation. There is still a great deal of uncertainty about how cryosphere change affects the weather and climate through different atmospheric circulation processes at different spatial and temporal scales due to observation and simulation problems.

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16. Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance
MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 502-515.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502
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Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.

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17. Numerical simulation of electroosmosis in unsaturated compacted clay
KangWei Tang,Feng Zhang,DeCheng Feng,GuanFu Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (5): 394-407.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.21033.
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The moisture content of a road subgrade in cold regions will increase after freeze-thaw cycles, resulting in subgrade strength and stiffness losses. Electroosmosis is widely used in treating saturated soft soils to decrease the moisture content. The induced moisture migration during electroosmosis in unsaturated soil is much more complex than that of saturated soil because of a series of nonlinear changes in soil properties. This study first uses an exponential function to characterize the relationship between electroosmotic permeability and saturation degree. Then, a one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the electroosmosis-induced moisture migration in unsaturated soil. Simulation results show that electroosmosis reduces the saturation degree of the unsaturated soil, indicating that it can be applied to subgrade dewatering. Key parameters such as soil pore size distribution coefficient, air entry value, and effective voltage significantly affect moisture migration. Electroosmotic properties of unsaturated soils are extremely important to the efficiency of electroosmosis.

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18. Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 234-241.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
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Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

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19. Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (3): 221-228.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
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The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
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20. Litter decomposition in fragile ecosystems: A review
Hao Qu,XueYong Zhao,XiaoAn Zuo,ShaoKun Wang,XuJun Ma,Xia Tang,XinYuan Wang,Eduardo Medina-Roldán
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (3): 151-161.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21061.
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As a linkage between plants and soil, litter decomposition and its effect on nutrient recirculation have an important ecological significance as they contribute to soil structure improvement and the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Fragile ecosystems in arid regions (both hot and cold) are depleted in soil organic matter, and as a result of various factors their circulation of material and energy is slower. Here we discuss how litter decomposition is necessary to maintain the stability of fragile ecosystems. We reviewed research on litter decomposition carried out in arid regions. Our objective in this review is to outline how litter decomposition, and the subsequent buildup of organic matter in soil, is a key process determining the stability of fragile ecosystems. Our review shows that existing studies have focused on the influence of single ecological factors on litter decomposition and nutrient cycling, and highlights how the exploration of interactions among factors determining litter decomposition is still lacking. This interaction is a key aspect, since in the real world, decomposition and nutrient return to soil of litter products is affected by multiple factors. We propose a network setup on a cross-regional scale using standardized methods (e.g., the tea bag method) to understand litter decomposition and nutrient return in fragile ecosystems. Such a unique network could contribute to establish predictive models suitable for litter decomposition and nutrient return in these areas, and thus could provide theoretical and practical support for regional ecological protection and high-quality development.

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21. Uncertainty analysis of runoff and sedimentation in a forested watershed using sequential uncertainty fitting method
Tanveer Abbas, Ghulam Nabi, Muhammad W. Boota, Fiaz Hussain, Muhammad I. Azam, HuiJun Jin, Muhammad Faisal
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (4): 297-310.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00297
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The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was implemented in a small forested watershed of the Soan River Basin in northern Pakistan through application of the sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) method to investigate the associated uncertainty in runoff and sediment load estimation. The model was calibrated for a 10-year period (1991-2000) with an initial 4-year warm-up period (1987-1990), and was validated for the subsequent 10-year period (2001-2010). The model evaluation indices R2 (the coefficient of determination), NS (the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency), and PBIAS (percent bias) for stream flows simulation indicated that there was a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows. To assess the uncertainty in the model outputs, p-factor (a 95% prediction uncertainty, 95PPU) and r-factors (average wideness width of the 95PPU band divided by the standard deviation of the observed values) were taken into account. The 95PPU band bracketed 72% of the observed data during the calibration and 67% during the validation. The r-factor was 0.81 during the calibration and 0.68 during the validation. For monthly sediment yield, the model evaluation coefficients (R2 and NS) for the calibration were computed as 0.81 and 0.79, respectively; for validation, they were 0.78 and 0.74, respectively. Meanwhile, the 95PPU covered more than 60% of the observed sediment data during calibration and validation. Moreover, improved model prediction and parameter estimation were observed with the increased number of iterations. However, the model performance became worse after the fourth iterations due to an unreasonable parameter estimation. Overall results indicated the applicability of the SWAT model with moderate levels of uncertainty during the calibration and high levels during the validation. Thus, this calibrated SWAT model can be used for assessment of water balance components, climate change studies, and land use management practices.
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22. Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China
Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (5): 400-410.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400
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Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
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23. Biological improvement of saline alkali soil reference system: A review
XueQin Wang,Xu Xing,FengJu Zhang,Kong Xin
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 516-521.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00000
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This work presents a reference system overview to improve the efficiency of biological improvement of saline-alkali soil developed during the last thirty years, ranging from connotation, general methods and species, soil desalination, soil structure, soil organic content, microbial flora, enzyme activity, yield and economic benefits. The reference system presented is divided into three main groups: suitable varieties, suitable cultivation measures, and a comprehensive evaluation system. There has been a lot of research on biological improvement of saline alkali soil, but these studies are very fragmented and lack a comprehensive standard system. Also, there is a lack of practical significance, particularly with regard to optimal species, densities and times of sowing for particular regions. On the other hand, the corresponding cultivation measure is very important. Therefore, a reference system plays an important role to the effect of biological improvement of saline alkali soil.

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24. Spatiotemporal change of carbon storage in the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi, based on the InVEST Model
ShaoYang Liu, NingKe Hu, Jin Zhang, ZhiChao Lv
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (3): 240-250.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00240
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In recent years, land use and land cover have under gone tremendous change on the Loess Plateau, leading to temporal and spatial variation over many ecological factors, such as carbon storage. Based on four series of land-use data from remote-sensing imaging, spatiotemporal changes of land-use types and volume changes were analyzed. Combined with carbon-stock-assessment modules of the InVEST (integrated valuation ecosystem services and tradeoffs) model, the carbon-storage change was estimated and analyzed at the subcounty and subbasin scales. The results show that (1) cultivated land and grassland area decreased, while woodland and urban land area increased in northern Shaanxi; (2) the average carbon storage in Huangling County and the Beiluo River Basin is the largest, while that of Yuyang County and the Xinshui River Basin is the minimum, and that of Wuqi County showed the greatest growth; (3) carbon storage in the study area showed a definite decrease in 2000, but in general has increased from 1995 to 2010; (4) carbon-storage figures of subbasins and counties are all restricted by the natural status and land-use landscape of the whole study area. From the results, it can be seen that the effect of ecological policies is remarkable. This study has important implications for the rational planning of land use, adjustment of the ecosystem carbon cycle, and related policies.
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25. Numerical simulations on cutting of frozen soil using HJC Model
WenQiang Zhang,YongHong Niu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (3): 134-143.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00134
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Numerical simulation is known as an effective method for mechanical properties during frozen soil excavation. In order to reveal the development of cutting force, effective stress and cutting fragments in frozen silt during the cutting process, we introduce an explicit finite element program LS-DYNA to establish a two-dimensional numerical model of the frozen soil cut. We also use the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (HJC) damage constitutive model for simulating the variation of soil mechanical properties according to the strong dependence between the cutting tool and frozen silt during the process with different cutting depths, angles and velocities. Meanwhile, a series of experimental results are acquired of frozen silt cutting to prove the application of the HJC model during simulation of cutting force variations. The result shows that the cutting force and fragment size are strongly influenced by cutting depths and cutting velocities increased, and the maximum effective stress at points where the tool contacts frozen soil during the cutting process. In addition, when the cutting angle is 52°, the cutting force is the smallest, and the cutting angle is optimum. Thus, the prediction of frozen soil mechanical properties on the cutting process by this model is conducive to selecting machinery equipment in the field.

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26. Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (2): 114-125.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
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Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
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27. Intersection-pavement de-icing: comprehensive review and the state of the practice
Yang ZhaoHui Joey
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00001
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Winter maintenance operations are crucial for pedestrian and motorist safety and public mobility on urban streets and highways in cold regions, especially during winter storms. This study provides a comprehensive literature review of existing deicing technologies, with emphasis on electrical resistance-heating deicing technologies for possible applications in areas with concentrated traffic, such as street intersections and crosswalks. A thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melting was conducted. The performance of various deicing methods was evaluated and the installation and operation cost of the electrical resistance-heating methods compared. Finally, current state of the practice of intersection/crosswalk winter maintenance was surveyed among state departments of transportation in North America. The intersection/crosswalk winter maintenance procedure adopted by the State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities was described, and the annual winter maintenance and operation cost per intersection was estimated. It was found that the annual energy cost of an electrical resistance-heating method such as the carbon-fiber-tape deicing technology is about the same as the average annual maintenance and operation cost of current practice. In addition, an automatic electrical resistance-heating deicing system will bring benefits such as minimized delay time and improved safety for pedestrian and vehicular traffic in an urban application.

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28. Thickness estimation of the Longbasaba Glacier: methods and application
GuangLi He,JunFeng Wei,Xin Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 477-490.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00477
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A total of 71,177 glaciers exist on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, according to the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0). Despite their large number, glacier ice thickness data are relatively scarce. This study utilizes digital elevation model data and ground-penetrating radar thickness measurements to estimate the distribution and variation of ice thickness of the Longbasaba Glacier using Glacier bed Topography (GlabTop), a full-width expansion model, and the Huss and Farinotti (HF) model. Results show that the average absolute deviations of GlabTop, the full-width expansion model, and the HF model are 9.8, 15.5, and 10.9 m, respectively, indicating that GlabTop performs the best in simulating glacier thickness distribution. During 1980-2015, the Longbasaba Glacier thinned by an average of 7.9±1.3 m or 0.23±0.04 m/a, and its ice volume shrunk by 0.28±0.04 km3 with an average reduction rate of 0.0081±0.0001 km3/a. In the investigation period, the area and volume of Longbasaba Lake expanded at rates of 0.12±0.01 km2/a and 0.0132±0.0018 km3/a, respectively. This proglacial lake could potentially extend up to 5,000 m from the lake dam.

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29. Influence of freeze tube deviation on the development of frozen wall during long cross-passage construction
JunHao Chen,JianLin Wang,LeXiao Wang,Han Li,MeiLin Chen
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 234-243.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.002
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This paper investigates the influence of the deviation in freeze pipe installation on the development of the frozen wall in long cross passages by numerical simulation with ANSYS software. The study case is from the artificial ground freezing project along the Fuzhou Metro Line 2 between Ziyang Station and Wuliting Station. Two freeze-pipe configurations, i.e., one with perfectly aligned pipes without any deviation from design and another with randomly distributed deviation, are included for comparison. The effect of the random deviation in the freeze pipes on frozen wall interconnection time, the thickness of the frozen wall and the development of the temperature field is explored. For the characteristic section of the numerical model at a depth of 25 m, it is found that the frozen wall interconnection time under the random deviation case and no deviation case is 24 days and 18 days, respectively. The difference in the thickness of the thinnest frozen wall segment between the random deviation and no deviation cases is the largest in the early freezing stage (up to 0.75 m), which decreases with time to 0.31 m in the late freezing stage. The effects of random deviation are more significant in the early freezing stage and diminish as the freezing time increases.

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30. The mass-balance characteristics and sensitivities to climate variables of Laohugou Glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China
JiZu Chen, ShiChang Kang, Xiang Qin, WenTao Du, WeiJun Sun, YuShuo Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (6): 543-553.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00543
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Due to global warming, glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are experiencing widespread shrinkage; however, the mechanisms controlling glacier variations across the TP are still rather unclear, especially on the northeastern TP. In this study, a physically based, distributed surface-energy and mass-balance model was used to simulate glacier mass balance forced by meteorological data. The model was applied to Laohugou No. 12 Glacier, western Qilian Mountains, China, during 2010~2012. The simulated albedo and mass balance were validated and calibrated by in situ measurements. The simulated annual glacier-wide mass balances were -385 mm water equivalent (w.e.) in 2010/2011 and -232 mm w.e. in 2011/2012, respectively. The mean equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was 5,015 m a.s.l., during 2010~2012, which ascended by 215 m compared to that in the 1970s. The mean accumulation area ratio (AAR) was 39% during the two years. Climatic-sensitivity experiments indicated that the change of glacier mass balance resulting from a 1.5 ℃ increase in air temperature could be offset by a 30% increase in annual precipitation. The glacier mass balance varied linearly with precipitation, at a rate of 130 mm w.e. per 10% change in total precipitation.
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31. Characterizing stand structure in a spruce forests: effects of sampling protocols
Jun Du, WeiJun Zhao, ZhiBin He, JunJun Yang, LongFei Chen, Xi Zhu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (3): 245-256.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00245
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Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent characteristic of natural forest landscapes, therefore estimation of structural variability, including the collection and analyzing of field measurements, is a growing challenge for monitoring wildlife habitat diversity and ecosystem sustainability. In this study, we investigated the combined influence of plot shape and size on the accuracy of assessment of conventional and rare structural features in two young-growth spruce-dominated forests in northwestern China. We used a series of inventory schemes and analytical approaches. Our data showed that options for sampling protocols, especially the selection of plot size considered in structural attributes measurement, dramatically affect the minimum number of plots required to meet a certain accuracy criteria. The degree of influence of plot shape is related to survey objectives; thus, effects of plot shape differ for evaluations of the "mean" or "representative" stand structural conditions from that for the range of habitat (in extreme values). Results of Monte Carlo simulations suggested that plot sizes <0.1 ha could be the most efficient way to sample for conventional characteristics (features with relative constancy within a site, such as stem density). Also, 0.25 ha or even larger plots may have a greater likelihood of capturing rare structural attributes (features possessing high randomness and spatial heterogeneity, such as volume of coarse woody debris) in our forest type. These findings have important implications for advisable sampling protocol (plot size and shape) to adequately capture information on forest habitat structure and diversity; such efforts must be based on a clear definition of which types are structural attributes to measure.
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32. Effects of salt and alkali stress on Reaumuria soongorica germination
Fang Wang, HongLang Xiao, XiaoMei Peng, Shang Li
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (2): 158-166.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00158
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Seed germination and early seedling growth are crucial stages for plant establishment. Two neutral (NaCl and Na2SO4) and two alkali (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) salts were selected to investigate their effects on germination and recovery responses in Reaumuria soongorica. Results show that both salt types significantly reduced germination and radicle elongation. The rate of germination and emergence of R. soongorica seeds continuously decreased as salinity increased, and the time to achieve maximum germination rate was delayed. The speed of seed germination dropped rapidly as salt concentration increased. Alkaline salts restricted the germination rate of R. soongorica seeds, and stresses resulting from alkaline salts and high concentrations of neutral salts resulted in many deformed seedlings. The length of the radicle and germ decreased with increasing salt concentration, but certain concentrations of salt and increased pH promoted germ growth. The results of regression analysis show that salt concentration was the dominant factor inhibiting R. soongorica seed germination rate. Salinity, buffering capacity, and pH all affected embryo growth, but salinity had the most pronounced effect. Seed viability under highly saline conditions appears to be a better indicator of adaptation to saline environments than seed germination under saline conditions.
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33. Ecophysiological responses to drought stress in Populus euphratica
ChunYan Zhao,JianHua Si,Qi Feng,TengFei Yu,Huan Luo,Jie Qin
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (4): 326-336.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20025.
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Ecophysiological responses to drought stress of Populus euphratica in Alashan Desert Eco-hydrology Experimental Research Station were investigated. Results show that under mild and moderate drought stress, stomatal length, aperture, area and density is likely to decrease in the early days, but afterwards this is likely to recovery with treatment over the passage of treatment time. Under severe drought stress, these properties appear to decline continuously. However, after 45 days of drought-stress treatment, the decline is not as noticeable as before, indicating that Populus euphratica could possibly reduce water evaporation by shutting down the stoma, leading to an improvement in its water use efficiency with better survival under drought stress conditions. The leaf area first decreases, and then increases under mild and moderate drought stress conditions, with the average values under different degree of stress found to be approximately 129.52, 120.08, 116.63 and 107.28 cm2, respectively. Under moderate stress conditions, the leaf water potential appears to show a continuous decline where the average values under different degree of stress are found to be -1.27, -1.85, -4.29 and -4.80 MPa, respectively. In terms of proline content, the results demonstrate that this factor appears to increase significantly under moderate and severe drought stress conditions. Especially under severe drought stress condition, the content is found to be more than 700 μg/g. Ranging over average values of 14.64 and 15.90 nmol/g under moderate and severe drought stress, respectively, Malondialdehyde content is found to increase quite rapidly under moderate and severe drought stress conditions at first, which then appears to decrease gradually with the treatment over time.

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34. Holocene precipitation δ18O as an indicator of temperature history in arid central Asia: an overview of recent advances
ZhiGuo Rao,YiPing Tian,YunXia Li,HaiChun Guo,XinZhu Zhang,Guang Han,XinPing Zhang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 371-379.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00371
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Holocene δ18O records from various archives (ice cores, cave stalagmites, and peat sediments) from the Xinjiang region of northwestern China, in arid central Asia (ACA), are all derived ultimately from local precipitation δ18O (δ18Op). Nevertheless, they have been proposed as indicators of different climatic parameters, such as wetness and temperature changes. This article summarizes previously reported records of moisture sources for the Xinjiang region and the results of modern observations conducted at an ice core site and a peat site in the Altai Mountains. The findings are used to propose that the overall positive trends in Holocene δ18O records from the various archives from the Xinjiang region primarily reflect the Holocene's long-term warming trend. It is concluded that more site-specific modern observations are needed to further elucidate the environmental significance of Holocene δ18O records from this region, especially for the separation of different seasonal temperature signals present within δ18O records.

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35. Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan
Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (1): 55-68.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055
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Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
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36. Characteristics of permafrost degradation in Northeast China and its ecological effects: A review
ShanShan Chen,ShuYing Zang,Li Sun
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00001.
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Latitudinal permafrost in Northern Northeast (NNE) China is located in the southern margin of the Eurasian continent, and is very sensitive to climatic and environmental change. Numerical simulations indicate that air temperature in the permafrost regions of Northeast China has been on the rise since the 1950s, and will keep rising in the 21st century, leading to extensive degradation of permafrost. Permafrost degradation in NNE China has its own characteristics, such as northward shifts in the shape of a "W" for the permafrost southern boundary (SLP), discontinuous permafrost degradation into island-like frozen soil, and gradually disappearing island permafrost. Permafrost degradation leads to deterioration of the ecological environment in cold regions. As a result, the belt of larch forests dominated by Larix gmelinii has shifted northwards and wetland areas with symbiotic relationships with permafrost have decreased significantly. With rapid retreat and thinning of permafrost and vegetation change, the CO2 and CH4 flux increases with mean air temperature from continuous to sporadic permafrost areas as a result of activity of methanogen enhancement, positively feeding back to climate warming. This paper reviews the features of permafrost degradation, the effects of permafrost degradation on wetland and forest ecosystem structure and function, and greenhouse gas emissions on latitudinal permafrost in NNE China. We also put forward critical questions about the aforementioned effects, including: (1) establish long-term permafrost observation systems to evaluate the distribution of permafrost and SLP change, in order to study the feedback of permafrost to climate change; (2) carry out research about the effects of permafrost degradation on the wetland ecosystem and the response of Xing'an larch to global change, and predict ecosystem dynamics in permafrost degradation based on long-term field observation; (3) focus intensively on the dynamics of greenhouse gas flux in permafrost degradation of Northeast China and the feedback of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change; (4) quantitative studies on the permafrost carbon feedback and vegetation carbon feedback due to permafrost change to climate multi-impact and estimate the balance of C in permafrost regions in the future.

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37. Coarse fragment content influences estimates of soil C and N stocks of alpine grassland on the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China
Yu Qin,ShuHua Yi,JianJun Chen
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (2): 100-108.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21006.
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks are usually calculated with samples collected using core samplers. Although the calculation considers the effects of gravel in soil samples, other coarse fragments such as stones or boulders in soil may not be collected due to the restricted diameter of core samplers. This would cause an incorrect estimation of soil bulk density and ultimately SOC and TN stocks. In this study, we compared the relative volume of coarse fragment and bulk density of fine earth determined by large size soil sampler with three core samplers. We also investigated the uncertainties in estimation of SOC and TN stocks caused by this soil sampler procedure in three typical alpine grasslands on the northeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), China. Results show that (1) the relative volume and size of coarse fragment collected by large size sampler were significantly (p <0.05) higher and larger than those of core samplers, while bulk density of fine earth, SOC and TN stocks show opposite patterns in all grassland types; (2) SOC and TN stocks determined by core samplers were 17%-45% and 18%-46% higher than larger size sampler for three typical alpine grasslands; and (3) bulk density of fine earth, SOC and TN stocks exponentially decreased with the increasing of coarse fragment content. We concluded that core sampler methods significantly underestimated the volume occupied by coarse fragment but overestimated SOC and TN stocks. Thus, corrections should be made to the results from core samplers using large size samplers on regions with gravel and stone-rich soils in future studies.

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38. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical coupled analysis of unsaturated frost susceptible soils
YuWei Wu,Tatsuya Ishikawa
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 244-258.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.003.
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Damage caused by frost heave leads to costly maintenance in cold regions, like Hokkaido, Japan. Therefore, the study of the frost mechanism with experimental and numerical methods has been of great interest. Numerous models have been developed to describe the freezing process of saturated soil, which differs from the partially saturated conditions in the field. In fact, most subsurface soils are unsaturated. The freezing process of partially saturated soils is more complex than saturated soils, as the governing equations show strongly nonlinear characteristics. This study proposes a thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model considering the heat transfer, water infiltration, and deformation of partially saturated soil to reproduce the freezing process of partially saturated frost susceptible soils distributed in Hokkaido. This model better considers the water-ice phase change and soil freezing characteristic curve (SFCC) during freezing under field conditions. The results from the multiphysics simulations agree well with the frost heave and water migration data from frost heave tests of Touryo soil and Fujinomori soil. In addition, this study discussed the influence of the various factors on frost heave amount, including temperature gradients, overburden pressures, water supply conditions, cooling rates, and initial saturation. The simulation results indicate that the frost heave ratio is proportional to the initial degree of saturation and is inversely proportional to the cooling rate and overburden pressure.

Moreover, simulation under the open system generates much more frost heave than under the closed system. Finally, the main features of the proposed model are revealed by simulating a closed-system frost heave test. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model adequately captures the coupling characteristics of water and ice redistribution, temperature development, hydraulic conductivity, and suction in the freezing process. Together with the decreased hydraulic conductivity, the increased suction controls the water flow in the freezing zone. The inflow water driven by cryogenic suction gradient feeds the ice formation, leads to a rapid increase in total water content, expanding the voids that exceed the initial porosity and contributing to the frost heave.

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39. Interdecadal correlation of solar activity with Tibetan Plateau snow depth and winter atmospheric circulation in East Asia
ZhiCai Li, Yan Song, Wei Zhang, Jing Zhang, ZiNiu Xiao
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (6): 524-535.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00524
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Studies on the impact of solar activity on climate system are very important in understanding global climate change. Previous studies in this field were mostly focus on temperature, wind and geopotential height. In this paper, interdecadal correlations of solar activity with Winter Snow Depth Index (WSDI) over the Tibetan Plateau, Arctic Oscillation Index (AOI) and the East Asian Winter Monsoon Index (EAWMI) are detected respectively by using Solar Radio Flux (SRF), Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Sunspot Number (SSN) data and statistical methods. Arctic Oscillation and East Asian winter monsoon are typical modes of the East Asian atmospheric circulation. Research results show that on interdecadal time scale over 11-year solar cycle, the sun modulated changes of winter snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asian atmospheric circulation. At the fourth lag year, the correlation coefficient of SRF and snow depth is 0.8013 at 0.05 significance level by Monte-Carlo test method. Our study also shows that winter snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau has significant lead and lag correlations with Arctic Oscillation and the East Asian winter monsoon on long time scale. With more snow in winter, the phase of Arctic Oscillation is positive, and East Asian winter monsoon is weak, while with less snow, the parameters are reversed. An example is the winter of 2012/2013, with decreased Tibetan Plateau snow, phase of Arctic Oscillation was negative, and East Asian winter monsoon was strong.
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40. Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings
YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 447-460.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447
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Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.

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