Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2022, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 267-281.doi: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.005.

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Discussion on pile axial load test methods and their applicability in cold regions

JiaWei Gao1,2,Ji Chen1(),Xin Hou1,2,QiHang Mei1,2,YongHeng Liu1,2   

  1. 1.Beiluhe Observation and Research Station on Frozen Soil Engineering and Environment in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, NIEER, CAS, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-10-30 Accepted:2022-02-24 Online:2022-08-31 Published:2022-09-30
  • Contact: Ji Chen
  • Supported by:
    the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Science(XDA20020102);the Science and Technology Project of State Grid Corporation of China(SGQHDKYOSBJS201600077);the Natural Science Foundation of China(41101065);the State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering Foundation(SKLFSE-ZT-34)


The measurement of pile axial load is of great significance to determining pile foundation design parameters such as skin friction and end bearing capacity and analyzing load transfer mechanisms. Affected by the temperature and ice content of frozen ground, the interface contact relationship between pile foundation and frozen soil is complicated, making pile axial load measurements more uncertain than that in non-frozen ground. Therefore, it is necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of the current pile axial load test methods. Four methods are systematically reviewed: vibrating wire sensors, strain gauges, sliding micrometers, and optical fiber strain sensors. At the same time, the applicability of the four test methods in frozen soil regions is discussed in detail. The first two methods are mature and commonly used. The sliding micrometer is only suitable for short-term measurement. While the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain gauge meets the monitoring requirements, the Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer (BOTDR) needs further verification. This paper aims to provide a technical reference for selecting and applying different methods in the pile axial load test for the stability study and bearing capacity assessment of pile foundations in cold regions.

Key words: pile axial load, test methods, pile shaft resistance, sensors, cold regions

Figure 1

Structure diagram of the reinforcement stress meter"

Figure 2

Layout and field installation of the reinforcement stress meter in a bored pile. (a) Field installation layout. (b) View of a reinforcement stress meter"

Figure 3

Basic structure diagram of a strain gauge"

Figure 4

Layout and field installation of strain gauges in a precast concrete pile. (a) Layout and field installation. (b) Strain gauge dimensions"

Figure 5

Principle of the sliding micrometer"

Figure 6

Layout and details of sliding micrometers in a bored pile. (a) Layout in a steel reinforcement bar cage and the connection of the probe to the cable. (b) Cable disc with a winch"

Figure 7

Structure diagram of fiber Bragg grating"

Figure 8

Layout and installation method of fiber Bragg grating sensors in a bored pile. (a) Field installation layout. (b) View of fiber Bragg grating sensors"

Figure 9

Measurement schematic of Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer"

Figure 10

Layout and field installation of Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometerin a bored pile. (a) Installation in a reinforcement cage. (b) Optical fiber cable"

Table 1

Summary of the test methods"

Test methodsMeasuring rangeMeasurement accuracyWorking temperature range (℃)Remote data transmission (Yes/No)Applicability in cold regionsAdvantagesDisadvantages
Reinforcement stress meterrange -100 to 250 MPa±0.1% F.S.[25, 60]YesYesVibration resistant and simple structureEasily damaged
Stain gauge1-20,000 με±0.1% F.S.[30, 80]YesYesSmall size and simple structureEasily damaged
Sliding micrometer±10 mm±0.003 mm/m[20, 60]NoShort-term measurement onlyHigh precision and small driftManual calibration required before and after each test
Fiber Bragg grating±3,500 με±1 με[40, 100]YesYesHigh precision and high sampling frequencyMonitoring of measurement points only
Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer±2,700 με±30 με[100, 500]YesFurther validation is requiredSingle-ended and non-destructive monitoringLow measurement precision and low sampling frequency
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