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2021, 13 (1) Online: 28 February 2021
• Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions
• YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 1–17 Abstract ( 276) HTML ( 107) PDF (4971 KB) ( 341 )
• A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.

• Simulated effect of soil freeze-thaw process on surface hydrologic and thermal fluxes in frozen ground region of the Northern Hemisphere
• Di Ma,SiQiong Luo,DongLin Guo,ShiHua Lyu,XianHong Meng,BoLi Chen,LiHui Luo
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20059
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 18–29 Abstract ( 91) HTML ( 98) PDF (11935 KB) ( 65 )
• Soil freeze-thaw process is closely related to surface energy budget, hydrological activity, and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, two numerical experiments (including and excluding soil freeze-thaw process) were designed to examine the effect of soil freeze-thaw process on surface hydrologic and thermal fluxes in frozen ground region in the Northern Hemisphere based on the state-of-the-art Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5. Results show that in response to soil freeze-thaw process, the area averaged soil temperature in the shallow layer (0.0175-0.0451 m) decreases by 0.35 ℃ in the TP (Tibetan Plateau), 0.69 ℃ in CES (Central and Eastern Siberia), and 0.6 ℃ in NA (North America) during summer, and increases by 1.93 ℃ in the TP, 2.28 ℃ in CES and 1.61 ℃ in NA during winter, respectively. Meanwhile, in response to soil freeze-thaw process, the area averaged soil liquid water content increases in summer and decrease in winter. For surface heat flux components, the ground heat flux is most significantly affected by the freeze-thaw process in both summer and winter, followed by sensible heat flux and latent heat flux in summer. In the TP area, the ground heat flux increases by 2.82 W/m2 (28.5%) in summer and decreases by 3.63 W/m2 (40%) in winter. Meanwhile, in CES, the ground heat flux increases by 1.89 W/m2 (11.3%) in summer and decreases by 1.41 W/m2 (18.6%) in winter. The heat fluxes in the Tibetan Plateau are more susceptible to the freeze-thaw process compared with the high-latitude frozen soil regions. Soil freeze-thaw process can induce significant warming in the Tibetan Plateau in winter. Also, this process induces significant cooling in high-latitude regions in summer. The frozen ground can prevent soil liquid water from infiltrating to deep soil layers at the beginning of thawing; however, as the frozen ground thaws continuously, the infiltration of the liquid water increases and the deep soil can store water like a sponge, accompanied by decreasing surface runoff. The influence of the soil freeze-thaw process on surface hydrologic and thermal fluxes varies seasonally and spatially.

• Direct incorporation of paraffin wax as phase change material into mass concrete for temperature control: mechanical and thermal properties
• Tao Luo,JuanJuan Ma,Fang Liu,MingYi Zhang,ChaoWei Sun,YanJun Ji,XiaoSa Yuan
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20032
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 30–42 Abstract ( 48) HTML ( 146) PDF (9764 KB) ( 52 )
• Taking advantage of heat absorbing and releasing capability of phase change material (PCM), Paraffin wax-based concrete was prepared to assess its automatic temperature control performance. The mechanical properties of PCM concrete with eight different Paraffin wax contents were tested by the cube compression test and four-point bending test. The more Paraffin wax incorporated, the greater loss of the compressive strength and bending strength. Based on the mechanical results, four contents of Paraffin wax were chosen for studying PCM concrete's thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient and adiabatic temperature rise. When the Paraffin wax content increases from 10% to 20%, the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity decrease from 7.31 kJ/(m·h·°C) to 7.10 kJ/(m·h·°C) and from 3.03×10-3 m2/h to 2.44×10-3 m2/h, respectively. Meanwhile the specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient rise from 5.38×10-1 kJ/(kg·°C) to 5.76×10-1 kJ/(kg·°C) and from 9.63×10-6/°C to 14.02×10-6/°C, respectively. The adiabatic temperature rise is found to decrease with an increasing Paraffin wax content. Considering both the mechanical and thermal properties, 15% of Paraffin wax was elected for the mass concrete model test, and the model test results confirm the effect of Paraffin wax in automatic mass concrete temperature control.

• Response of revegetation to climate change with meso- and micro-scale remote sensing in an arid desert of China
• Guang Song,BingYao Wang,JingYao Sun,YanLi Wang,XinRong Li
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20030
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 43–52 Abstract ( 37) HTML ( 11) PDF (5449 KB) ( 42 )
• The revegetation protection system (VPS) on the edge of the Tengger Desert can be referred to as a successful model of sand control technology in China and even the world, and there has been a substantial amount of research on revegetation stability. However, it is unclear how meso- and micro-scale revegetation activity has responded to climatic change over the past decades. To evaluate the relative influence of climatic variables on revegetation activities in a restored desert ecosystem, we analysed the trend of revegetation change from 2002 to 2015 using a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset. The time series of the NDVI data were decomposed into trend, seasonal, and random components using a segmented regression method. The results of the segmented regression model indicate a changing trend in the NDVI in the VPS, changing from a decrease (-7×10-3/month) before 2005 to an increase (0.3×10-3/month) after 2005. We found that precipitation was the most important climatic factor influencing the growing season NDVI (P <0.05), while vegetation growth sensitivity to water and heat varied significantly in different seasons. In the case of precipitation reduction and warming in the study area, the NDVI of the VPS could still maintain an overall slow upward trend (0.04×10-3/month), indicating that the ecosystem is sustainable. Our findings suggest that the VPS has been successful in maintaining stability and sustainability under current climate change conditions and that it is possible to introduce the VPS in similar areas as a template for resistance to sand and drought hazards.

• The evapotranspiration and environmental controls of typical underlying surfaces on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
• JinLei Chen,Jun Wen,ShiChang Kang,XianHong Meng,XianYu Yang
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20072
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 53–61 Abstract ( 51) HTML ( 9) PDF (5845 KB) ( 67 )
• To reveal the characteristics of evapotranspiration and environmental control factors of typical underlying surfaces (alpine wetland and alpine meadow) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, a comprehensive study was performed via in situ observations and remote sensing data in the growing season and non-growing season. Evapotranspiration was positively correlated with precipitation, the decoupling coefficient, and the enhanced vegetation index, but was energy-limited and mainly controlled by the vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation at an annual scale and growing season scale, respectively. Compared with the non-growing season, monthly evapotranspiration, equilibrium evaporation, and decoupling coefficient were greater in the growing season due to lower vegetation resistance and considerable precipitation. However, these factors were restricted in the alpine meadow. The decoupling factor was more sensitive to changes of conductance in the alpine wetland. This study is of great significance for understanding hydro-meteorological processes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

• Evaluating effects of Dielectric Models on the surface soil moisture retrieval in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
• Rong Liu,Xin Wang,ZuoLiang Wang,Jun Wen
• DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20067
• 2021, Vol.13 (1): 62–76 Abstract ( 118) HTML ( 11) PDF (7208 KB) ( 144 )
• Based on the measurement of L-band ground-based microwave radiometer (ELBARA-III type) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the $τ-ω$ radiative transfer model, this research evaluated the effects of four soil dielectric models, i.e., Wang-Schmugge, Mironov, Dobson, and Four-phase, on the L-band microwave brightness temperature simulation and soil moisture retrieval. The results show that with the same vegetation and roughness parameterization scheme, the four soil dielectric models display obvious differences in microwave brightness temperature simulation. When the soil moisture is less than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature in Wang-Schmugge model is significantly different from that of the other three models, with maximum differences of horizontal polarization and vertical polarization reaching 8.0 K and 4.4 K, respectively; when the soil moisture is greater than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature of Four-phase significantly exceeds that of the other three models; when the soil moisture is saturated, maximum differences in simulated microwave brightness temperature with horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are 6.1 K and 4.8 K respectively, and the four soil dielectric models are more variable in the microwave brightness temperature simulation with horizontal polarization than that with vertical polarization. As for the soil moisture retrieval based on the four dielectric models, the comparison study shows that, under the condition of horizontal polarization, Wang-Schmugge model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture underestimating the observed soil moisture more effectively than other parameterization schemes, while under the condition of vertical polarization, the Mironov model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture overestimating the observed soil moisture. Finally, based on the Wang-Schmugge model and FengYun-3C observation data, the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study area is retrieved.

• Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions
• YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045
• 2021, 13 (1): 1–17 Abstract (276) HTML (107) PDF (4971 KB) (341)
• A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.

• Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg
• Sakpere A.M.A.
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00350.
• 2019, 11 (5): 350–359 Abstract (4040) HTML (270) PDF (2153 KB) (281)
• This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm $×$ 22cm $×$ 5cm) lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.

• Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
• XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
• 2020, 12 (4): 234–241 Abstract (137) HTML (5) PDF (1421 KB) (253)
• Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

• Research on pile performance and state-of-the-art practice in cold regions
• JianKun Liu, TengFei Wang, Zhi Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00001
• 2018, 10 (1): 1–11 Abstract (713) PDF (3430 KB) (237)
• A pile foundation is commonly adopted in geotechnical engineering to support structures, and its application has been extended to cold-regions engineering. In past decades, a host of scholars investigated pile behaviors and proposed design guidelines for seasonally frozen ground or permafrost. This paper reviews the research with respect to pile performance and engineering practice in cold regions, organized as follows: (1) creep tests and bearing capacity, (2) frost-jacking hazards, (3) laterally loaded piles, (4) dynamic responses, (5) refreezing due to concrete-hydration heat, and (6) improved countermeasures and design methods. We first summarize previous research and recent progress; then, predict the development trend of pile foundations in cold regions and recommend further research.
• Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal
• Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00357
• 2018, 10 (5): 357–368 Abstract (373) HTML (310) PDF (4797 KB) (231)
• The extensive debris that covers glaciers in the ablation zone of the Himalayan region plays an important part in regulating ablation rates and water availability for the downstream region. The melt rate of ice is determined by the amount of heat conducted through debris material lying over the ice. This study presents the vertical temperature gradients, thermal properties in terms of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and positive degree-day factors for the debris-covered portion of Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya using field-based measurements from three different seasons. Field measurements include debris temperatures at different debris thicknesses, air temperature, and ice melt during the monsoon (2013), winter (2013), and pre-monsoon (2014) seasons. We used a thermal equation to estimate thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and degree-day factors (DDF) were calculated from cumulative positive temperature and ice melt of the measurement period. Our analysis of debris temperature profiles at different depths of debris show the daily linear gradients of ?20.81 °C/m, 4.05 °C/m, and ?7.79 °C/m in the monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. The values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in the monsoon season were 10 times greater than in the winter season. The large difference in these values is attributed to surface temperature and moisture content within the debris. Similarly, we found higher values of DDFs at thinner debris for the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season although we observed less melting during the pre-monsoon season. This is attributed to higher cumulative temperature during the monsoon season than in the pre-monsoon season. Our study advances our understanding of heat conductivity through debris material in different seasons, which supports estimating ice melt and discharge from glacierized river basins with debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan region.

• Thickness estimation of the Longbasaba Glacier: methods and application
• GuangLi He,JunFeng Wei,Xin Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00477
• 2020, 12 (6): 477–490 Abstract (47) HTML (2) PDF (4573 KB) (231)
• A total of 71,177 glaciers exist on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, according to the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0). Despite their large number, glacier ice thickness data are relatively scarce. This study utilizes digital elevation model data and ground-penetrating radar thickness measurements to estimate the distribution and variation of ice thickness of the Longbasaba Glacier using Glacier bed Topography (GlabTop), a full-width expansion model, and the Huss and Farinotti (HF) model. Results show that the average absolute deviations of GlabTop, the full-width expansion model, and the HF model are 9.8, 15.5, and 10.9 m, respectively, indicating that GlabTop performs the best in simulating glacier thickness distribution. During 1980-2015, the Longbasaba Glacier thinned by an average of 7.9±1.3 m or 0.23±0.04 m/a, and its ice volume shrunk by 0.28±0.04 km3 with an average reduction rate of 0.0081±0.0001 km3/a. In the investigation period, the area and volume of Longbasaba Lake expanded at rates of 0.12±0.01 km2/a and 0.0132±0.0018 km3/a, respectively. This proglacial lake could potentially extend up to 5,000 m from the lake dam.

• Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment
• ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012.
• 2020, 12 (1): 12–21 Abstract (73) HTML (5) PDF (6304 KB) (213)
• In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.

• Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings
• YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447
• 2020, 12 (6): 447–460 Abstract (46) HTML (1) PDF (6723 KB) (198)
• Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.

• Characteristics and changes of permafrost along the engineering corridor of National Highway 214 in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
• Yu Sheng,JiChun Wu,Wei Cao,JianHong Fang,AnHua Xu,ErXing Peng
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00503
• 2020, 12 (6): 503–516 Abstract (196) HTML (4) PDF (7387 KB) (198)
• Due to a series of linear projects built along National Highway 214, the second "Permafrost Engineering Corridor" on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has formed. In this paper, by overcoming the problems of data decentralization and standard inconsistency, permafrost characteristics and changes along the engineering corridor are systematically summarized based on the survey and monitoring data. The results show that: 1) Being controlled by elevation, the permafrost is distributed in flake discontinuity with mountains as the center along the line. The total length of the road section in permafrost regions is 365 km, of which the total length of the permafrost section of National Highway 214 is 216.7 km, and the total length of the permafrost section of Gong-Yu Expressway is 197.3 km. The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) is higher than -1.5 °C, and permafrost with MAGT lower than -1.5 °C is only distributed in the sections at Bayan Har Mountain and E'la Mountain. There are obvious differences in the distribution of ground ice in the different sections along the engineering corridor. The sections with high ice content are mainly located in Zuimatan, Duogerong Plain and the top of north and south slope of Bayan Har Mountain. The permafrost thickness is controlled by the ground temperature, and permafrost thickness increases with the decrease of the ground temperature, with the change rate of about 37 m/°C. 2) Local factors (topography, landform, vegetation and lithology) affect the degradation process of permafrost, and then affect the distribution, ground temperature, thickness and ice content of permafrost. Asphalt pavement has greatly changed the heat exchange balance of the original ground, resulting in serious degradation of the permafrost. Due to the influence of roadbed direction trend, the phenomenon of shady-sunny slope is very significant in most sections along the line. The warming range of permafrost under the roadbed is gradually smaller with the increase of depth, so the thawing settlement of the shallow section with high ice-content permafrost is more significant.

• Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau
• Xia Zhao,JunFeng Wang,Yun Wang,Xiang Lu,ShaoFang Liu,YuBao Zhang,ZhiHong Guo,ZhongKui Xie,RuoYu Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00407.
• 2019, 11 (6): 407–418 Abstract (129) HTML (20) PDF (4670 KB) (193)
• An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.

• Characteristics of climate and melt runoff in the Koxkar Glacier River Basin, south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China
• Min Xu,HaiDong Han,ShiChang Kang,Hua Tao
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00435.
• 2019, 11 (6): 435–447 Abstract (70) HTML (9) PDF (5258 KB) (172)
• Hydrology of the high glacierized region in the Tianshan Mountains is an important water resource for arid and semiarid areas of China, even Central Asia. The hydrological process is complex to understand, due to the high variability in climate and the lack of hydrometeorological data. Based on field observations, the present study analyzes the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Koxkar Glacier River Basin during 2008-2011; and the factors influencing climate impact on glacier hydrology are discussed. The results show that precipitation at the terminus of the glacier was 426.2 mm, 471.8 mm, 624.9 mm, and 532 mm in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Discharge increases starting in May, reaches its highest value in July and August, and then starts to decrease. The mean annual discharge was 118.23×106 m3 during the four years observed, with 87.0% occurring in the ablation season (May-September). During the study period, the runoff in August accounted for 29% of total streamflow, followed by July (22%) and June (14%). The runoff exhibited obviously high interannual variability from April to September, induced by drastic changes in climate factors. Discharge autocorrelations are very high for all the years. The climate factors show different influences on discharge. The highest correlation R between daily temperature and discharge was for a time lag of 2-3 days on the Koxkar Glacier (0.66-0.76). The daily depth of runoff to daily temperature and daily water vapor pressure had an R 2 value of 0.56 and 0.69, respectively, which could be described by an exponential function. A closer relationship is found between runoff and either temperature or water vapor pressure on a monthly scale; the R 2 values are 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. The study helps us to understand the mechanisms of the hydrological-meteorological system of typical regional glaciers and to provide a reference for glacier-runoff simulations and water-resource management.

• Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents
• Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382.
• 2019, 11 (5): 382–388 Abstract (104) HTML (14) PDF (670 KB) (168)
• This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

• Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
• JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
• 2017, 9 (3): 221–228 Abstract (167) PDF (4411 KB) (157)
• The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
• An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China
• TangTang Zhang,Mekonnen Gebremichael,Akash Koppa,XianHong Meng,Qun Du,Jun Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00461.
• 2019, 11 (6): 461–469 Abstract (161) HTML (247) PDF (2806 KB) (156)
• In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.

• Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan
• Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055
• 2018, 10 (1): 55–68 Abstract (89) PDF (4789 KB) (151)
• Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
• Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China
• Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400
• 2016, 8 (5): 400–410 Abstract (101) PDF (2545 KB) (144)
• Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
• Evaluating effects of Dielectric Models on the surface soil moisture retrieval in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
• Rong Liu,Xin Wang,ZuoLiang Wang,Jun Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20067
• 2021, 13 (1): 62–76 Abstract (118) HTML (11) PDF (7208 KB) (144)
• Based on the measurement of L-band ground-based microwave radiometer (ELBARA-III type) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the $τ-ω$ radiative transfer model, this research evaluated the effects of four soil dielectric models, i.e., Wang-Schmugge, Mironov, Dobson, and Four-phase, on the L-band microwave brightness temperature simulation and soil moisture retrieval. The results show that with the same vegetation and roughness parameterization scheme, the four soil dielectric models display obvious differences in microwave brightness temperature simulation. When the soil moisture is less than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature in Wang-Schmugge model is significantly different from that of the other three models, with maximum differences of horizontal polarization and vertical polarization reaching 8.0 K and 4.4 K, respectively; when the soil moisture is greater than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature of Four-phase significantly exceeds that of the other three models; when the soil moisture is saturated, maximum differences in simulated microwave brightness temperature with horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are 6.1 K and 4.8 K respectively, and the four soil dielectric models are more variable in the microwave brightness temperature simulation with horizontal polarization than that with vertical polarization. As for the soil moisture retrieval based on the four dielectric models, the comparison study shows that, under the condition of horizontal polarization, Wang-Schmugge model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture underestimating the observed soil moisture more effectively than other parameterization schemes, while under the condition of vertical polarization, the Mironov model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture overestimating the observed soil moisture. Finally, based on the Wang-Schmugge model and FengYun-3C observation data, the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study area is retrieved.

• A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587
• 2017, 9 (6): 587–598 Abstract (66) PDF (2416 KB) (141)
• Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
• Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205
• 2016, 8 (3): 205–211 Abstract (113) PDF (325 KB) (141)
• Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
• Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method
• TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071.
• 2020, 12 (2): 71–82 Abstract (126) HTML (9) PDF (4245 KB) (141)
• Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

• Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region
• Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00404
• 2018, 10 (5): 404–412 Abstract (85) HTML (10) PDF (4973 KB) (137)
• For estimating the altitude-distribution pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands and analyzing the possible mechanism for this distribution, a detailed study was performed through a series of field vegetation surveys and soil samplings from 90 vegetation plots and 45 soil profiles at 9 sites of the Hexi Corridor region, Northwestern China. Aboveground, belowground, and litter-fall biomass-carbon stocks ranged from 43 to 109, 23 to 64, and 5 to 20 g/m2, with mean values of 80.82, 44.91, and 12.15 g/m2, respectively. Soil-carbon stocks varied between 2.88 and 3.98 kg/m2, with a mean value of 3.43 kg/m2 in the 0–100-cm soil layer. Both biomass- and soil-carbon stocks had an increasing tendency corresponding to the altitudinal gradient. A significantly negative correlation was found between soil-carbon stock and mean annual temperature, with further better correlations between soil- and biomass-carbon stocks, and mean annual precipitation. Furthermore, soil carbon was found to be positively correlated with soil-silt and -clay content, and negatively correlated with soil bulk density and the volume percent of gravel. It can be concluded that variations in soil texture and climate condition were the key factors influencing the altitudinal pattern of carbon stocks in this desert-grassland ecosystem. Thus, by using the linear-regression functions between altitude and carbon stocks, approximately 4.18 Tg carbon were predicted from the 1,260 km2 of desert grasslands in the study area.

• Zhangmu and Gyirong ports under the threat of glacial lake outburst flood
• MiaoMiao Qi,ShiYin Liu,YongPeng Gao
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00461
• 2020, 12 (6): 461–476 Abstract (48) HTML (5) PDF (11802 KB) (136)
• The Himalayas are prone to glacial lake outburst floods, which can pose a severe threat to downstream villages and infrastructure. The Zhangmu and Gyirong land treaty ports are located on the China-Nepal border in the central Himalayas. In recent years, the expansion of glacial lakes has increased the threat of these two port regions. This article describes the results of mapping the glacial lakes larger than 0.01 km2 in the Zhangmu and Gyirong port regions and analyzes their change. It provides a comprehensive assessment of potentially dangerous glacial lakes and predicts the development of future glacial lakes. From 1988 to 2019, the glacial lakes in these port regions underwent "expansion", and moraine-dammed lakes show the most significant expansion trend. A total of eleven potentially dangerous glacial lakes are identified based on the assessment criteria and historical outburst events; most expanded by more than 150% from 1988 to 2019, with some by over 500%. The Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake, is extremely prone to overtopping due to ice avalanches or the melting of dead ice in the dam. For other large lakes, such as the Jialongco, Gangxico and Galongco, ice avalanches may likely cause the lakes to burst besides self-destructive failure. The potential dangers of the Youmojianco glacial lakes, including lakes Nos. 9, 10 and 11, will increase in the future. In addition, the glacier-bed topography model predicts that 113 glacial lakes with a size larger than 0.01 km2, a total area of 11.88 km2 and a total volume of 6.37×109 m3 will form in the study area by the end of the 21 century. Due to global warming, the glacial lakes in the Zhangmu and Gyirong port regions will continue to grow in the short term, and hence the risk of glacial lake outburst floods will increase.

• Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region
• Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183
• 2017, 9 (3): 183–191 Abstract (150) PDF (757 KB) (133)
• The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
• Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
• BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
• 2019, 11 (5): 389–406 Abstract (91) HTML (14) PDF (4506 KB) (132)
• Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

• Relationship between ponding and topographic factors along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline in permafrost regions
• MingTang Chai,YanHu Mu,GuoYu Li,Wei Ma,Fei Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00419.
• 2019, 11 (6): 419–427 Abstract (125) HTML (19) PDF (4231 KB) (132)
• The original landform along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP, line 2) was disturbed during installation of pavement for the pipeline. Forest and vegetation coverage is dense, and runoff develops along the pipe. Since the operation of the CRCOP (line 2) began in 2018, ponding has appeared on both sides of the pipeline. If there is no drainage, ponding can hardly dissipate, due to the low permeability of the permafrost layer. With the supply of surface flow and the transportation of oil at positive temperatures, ponding promotes an increase in temperature and changes the boundary thermal conditions of the pipeline. Meanwhile, when the ponding freezes and thaws, frost heave threatens operational safety of the pipeline. Furthermore, the ponding can affect the thermal condition of line 1. In this paper, the distribution of ponding along the CRCOP was obtained by field investigation. The type and cause of ponding were summarized, and the catchment and stream order were extracted by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). According to the statistical results in attributes for topographic factors, it is known that ponding along the pipeline is relative to elevation, slope, aspect, and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Water easily accumulates at altitudes of 300-450 m, slopes within 3°-5°, aspect in the northeast or south, TWI within 13-16, flow direction in north-east-south, and flow length within 90-150 km. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the cause and characteristics of ponding along the pipeline.

• Characteristics of permafrost degradation in Northeast China and its ecological effects: A review
• ShanShan Chen,ShuYing Zang,Li Sun
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00001.
• 2020, 12 (1): 1–11 Abstract (133) HTML (19) PDF (1207 KB) (128)

• Cracking in an expansive soil under freeze–thaw cycles
• Yang Lu, SiHong Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00392
• 2017, 9 (4): 392–397 Abstract (153) PDF (2977 KB) (125)
• Expansive soils located in cold regions can easily endure the action of frost heaving and cyclic freezing–thawing. Cracking can also occur in expansive clayey soils under freeze–thaw cycles, of which little attention has been paid on this issue. In this study, laboratory experiment and cracking analysis were performed on an expansive soil. Crack patterns were quantitatively analyzed using the fractal concept. The relationships among crack pattern, water loss, number of freeze–thaw cycles, and fractal dimension were discussed. It was found that crack patterns on the surface exhibit a hierarchical network structure that is fractal at a statistical level. Cracks induced by freeze–thaw cycles are shorter, more irregularly oriented, and slowly evolves from an irregularly rectilinear pattern towards a polygonal or quasi–hexagonal one; water loss, closely related to specimen thickness, plays a significant role in the process of soil cracking; crack development under freeze-thaw cycles are not only attributed to capillary effect, but also to expansion and absorption effects.
• Coupling numerical simulation with remotely sensed information for the study of frozen soil dynamics
• HuiRan Gao,WanChang Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00404
• 2020, 12 (6): 404–417 Abstract (35) HTML (6) PDF (10153 KB) (125)
• The acquisition of spatial-temporal information of frozen soil is fundamental for the study of frozen soil dynamics and its feedback to climate change in cold regions. With advancement of remote sensing and better understanding of frozen soil dynamics, discrimination of freeze and thaw status of surface soil based on passive microwave remote sensing and numerical simulation of frozen soil processes under water and heat transfer principles provides valuable means for regional and global frozen soil dynamic monitoring and systematic spatial-temporal responses to global change. However, as an important data source of frozen soil processes, remotely sensed information has not yet been fully utilized in the numerical simulation of frozen soil processes. Although great progress has been made in remote sensing and frozen soil physics, yet few frozen soil research has been done on the application of remotely sensed information in association with the numerical model for frozen soil process studies. In the present study, a distributed numerical model for frozen soil dynamic studies based on coupled water-heat transferring theory in association with remotely sensed frozen soil datasets was developed. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the simulation, the remotely sensed frozen soil information was used to monitor and modify relevant parameters in the process of model simulation. The remotely sensed information and numerically simulated spatial-temporal frozen soil processes were validated by in-situ field observations in cold regions near the town of Naqu on the East-Central Tibetan Plateau. The results suggest that the overall accuracy of the algorithm for discriminating freeze and thaw status of surface soil based on passive microwave remote sensing was more than 95%. These results provided an accurate initial freeze and thaw status of surface soil for coupling and calibrating the numerical model of this study. The numerically simulated frozen soil processes demonstrated good performance of the distributed numerical model based on the coupled water-heat transferring theory. The relatively larger uncertainties of the numerical model were found in alternating periods between freezing and thawing of surface soil. The average accuracy increased by about 5% after integrating remotely sensed information on the surface soil. The simulation accuracy was significantly improved, especially in transition periods between freezing and thawing of the surface soil.

• Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China
• JingHu Pan, YanXing Hu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00163
• 2016, 8 (2): 163–176 Abstract (73) PDF (697 KB) (124)
• The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization,urbanization,informatization and agricultural modernization(so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China,and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China.This paper evaluated the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units,and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011.The efficiency evaluation index system was established.The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001-2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis(DEA) model.Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefecture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA).Finally,the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression(GWR) model.Results indicate that the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns.Overall,the efficiency is relatively low,and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies.The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001-2011,with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas.The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.
• Comparative studies on leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. in two different regions of desert habitat
• MengMeng Li, YuBing Liu, MeiLing Liu, Dan Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00229
• 2015, 7 (3): 229–237 Abstract (79) PDF (1449 KB) (122)
• In order to obtain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure to evaluate the responses of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. to different environmental factors, epidermal micromorphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mesophyll structure was studied by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Materials were selected from Linze County, Gansu Province (material A) and Qitai County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (material B) of China. Results show that lamina thickness was higher in material A, with one layer of epidermal cells in both adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and epidermal cell radial length was significantly longer in the adaxial surface. E. angustifolia leaves are typically bifacial, with a higher ratio of palisade to spongy tissue in material A. The thickness of trichome layer of epidermis was thicker in material A. In contrast, cell wall and cuticular wax of the epidermal cells were thinner in material A than in material B. Chloroplast ultrastructure was different with the approximate spherical chloroplast containing numerous starch grains and osmiophilic granules in material A, while only the spindly chloroplast contained starch grains in material B. Multiple layers of peltate or stellate-peltate trichomes occupied both leaf surfaces in material A and the abaxial surface in material B, while the adaxial surface of material B contained few trichomes. Stomata were not observed on the leaf surfaces in materials A and B by SEM because of trichome obstruction. Our results indicate that the leaf structure of E. angustifolia is closely correlated with environmental factors, and the combination of leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure afford resistance to environmental stress.
• High-resolution mass spectrometric characterization of dissolved organic matter from warm and cold periods in the NEEM ice core
• JianZhong Xu, Amanda Grannas, CunDe Xiao, ZhiHeng Du, Amanda Willoughby, Patrick Hatcher, YanQing An
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00038
• 2018, 10 (1): 38–46 Abstract (90) PDF (3711 KB) (120)
• Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of ice cores but is currently poorly characterized. DOM from one Holocene sample (HS, aged at 1600-4500 B.P.) and one Last Glacial Maximum sample (LS, aged at 21000-25000 B.P.) from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core were analyzed by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). CHO compounds contributed 50% of the compounds identified in negative-ionization mode in these two samples, with significant contributions from organic N, S, and P compounds, likely suggesting that marine DOM was an important source in these samples. Overall, the chemical compositions are similar between these two samples, suggesting their consistent DOM sources. However, subtle differences in the DOM between these two samples are apparent and could indicate differences in source strength or chemistry occurring through both pre- and post-depositional processes. For example, higher relative amounts of condensed carbon compounds in the HS DOM (5%), compared to the LS DOM (2%), suggest potentially important contributions from terrestrial sources. Greater incorporation of P in the observed DOM in the LS DOM (22%), compared to the HS DOM (13%), indicate more active microbiological processes that likely contribute to phosphorus incorporation into the DOM pool. Although these two samples present only a preliminary analysis of DOM in glacial/interglacial periods, the data indicate a need to expand the analysis into a broader range of ice-core samples, geographical locations, and glacial/interglacial periods.
• Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
• Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
• 2018, 10 (4): 293–304 Abstract (104) HTML (16) PDF (1767 KB) (116)
• Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

• The simulation of LUCC based on Logistic-CA-Markov model in Qilian Mountain area, China
• HaiJun Wang, XiangDong Kong, Bo Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00350
• 2016, 8 (4): 350–358 Abstract (123) PDF (3422 KB) (115)
• The Qilian mountain area was examined for using the Logistic-CA-Markov coupling model combined with GIS spatial analyst technology to research the transformation of LUCC, driving force system and simulate future tendency of variation. Results show that:(1) Woodland area decreased by 12.55%, while grassland, cultivated land, and settlement areas increased by 0.22%, 7.92%, and 0.03%, respectively, from 1986 to 2014. During the period of 1986 to 2000, forest degradation in the middle section of the mountain area decreased by 1,501.69 km2. Vegetation cover area improved, with a net increase of grassland area of 38.12 km2 from 2000 to 2014. (2) For constructing the system driving force, the best simulation scale was 210m×210m. Based on logistic regression analysis, the contribution (weight) of composite driving forces to land use and cover change was obtained, and the weight value was more objectively compared with AHP and MCE method. (3) In the natural scenarios, it is predicted that land use and cover distribution maps of Qilian mountain area in 2028 and 2042, and the Lee-Sallee index test was adopted. Over the next 27 years (2015-2042), farmland, woodland, grassland, settlement areas show an increasing trend, especially settlements with an obvious change of 0.56%. The area of bare land will decrease by 0.89%. Without environmental degradation, tremendous structural change of LUCC will not occur, and typical characteristic of the vertical zone of the mountain would remain. Farmland and settlement areas will increase, but only in the vicinity of Qilian and Sunan counties.
• Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)
• CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159
• 2018, 10 (2): 159–168 Abstract (96) PDF (1727 KB) (114)
• Both yield and quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) are seriously affected by continuous cropping. We attempted to understand the effects of intercropping on the obstacles associated with continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). The changes of rhizosphere microbial biomass and diversity in interplanting and monoculturing systems were studied by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technique. The contents and composition of lily root exudates were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The intercropping results of Lanzhou lily showed: (1) There was no difference in the composition of the rhizosphere soil microbes at the phylum level, but the relative abundance of the microbes decreased; and the relative abundance of harmful fungi such as Fusarium sp. increased. The relative abundance of Pleosporales sp. and other beneficial bacteria were reduced. After OTU (operational taxonomic unit) clustering, there were some beneficial bacteria, such as Chaetomium sp., in the lily rhizosphere soil in the interplanting system that had not existed in the single-cropping system. We did not find harmful bacteria that had existed in the single-cropping systm in the rhizosphere soil of interplanting system. The above results indicated that the changes of relative abundance of soil fungi and bacteria in lily rhizosphere soil was not conducive to improving the ecological structure of rhizosphere soil microbes. At the same time, the microbial composition change is very complex—beneficial and yet inadequate at the same time. (2) Root exudates provide a matrix for the growth of microorganisms. Combined with the detection of root exudates, the decrease in the composition of the root exudates of the lily was probably the reason for the decrease of the relative abundance of microbes after intercropping. At the same time, the decrease of the relative content of phenolic compounds, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms, did not increase the relative content of rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Changes in amino acids and total sugars may be responsible for the growth of Fusarium sp.. The results showed that the intercropping pattern did not noticeably alleviate the obstacle to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily, and the change of microbial biomass and diversity was even unfavorable. However, the emergence of some beneficial bacteria, the disappearance of harmful fungi, and other changes with intercropping are in favor of alleviation of obstacles to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily.
• Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance
• MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502
• 2018, 10 (6): 502–515 Abstract (112) HTML (7) PDF (784 KB) (113)
• Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.

• Effects of heavy metal (Pb) concentration on some growth parameters of plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00036
• 2016, 8 (1): 36–45 Abstract (75) PDF (303 KB) (112)
• This study investigated morphological variation and biomass accumulation that occurred in Sida acuta and Chromolaena odorata plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment. The study was carried out in the screen house at the Biological Gardens of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The experiment was a factorial combination of one heavy metal (Pb) at five levels of concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg) in a completely randomized design, and were replicated three times for each of the two plants and two levels (0 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg) of organic fertilizer (OBD-Plus). Each pot was filled with 5 kg of air-dried and sieved soil and placed on a plastic tray for the collection of excess water. Two weeks after planting, seedlings of uniform height were transplanted from the nursery to experimental pots at the rate of one seedling per pot and grown for 10 weeks. The growth parameters of the plants were biomonitored for 7 weeks. After 10 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and dried to calculate the biomass accumulation. The two plant species performed better under fertilizer application than without it. For each of the plant species the growth parameters decreased as the levels of Pb concentration increased. Furthermore, the plants' biomass decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the levels of Pb concentration increased. The organic fertilizer helped to improve the plants' performance in lead-polluted soil.
• Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil
• TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407
• 2015, 7 (4): 407–413 Abstract (77) PDF (4001 KB) (110)
• This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
• Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
• ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
• 2018, 10 (2): 114–125 Abstract (96) PDF (2925 KB) (109)
• Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
• Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00120
• 2017, 9 (2): 120–126 Abstract (84) PDF (2148 KB) (108)
• This study aimed at investigating the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress. The study was carried out under a screen-house to minimize extraneous factors such as pests and rodents using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Seeds of cowpea, maize and tomato were collected from the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. These seeds were planted at a depth of about 3 mm below the soil. The seeds were sown at the rate of six seeds per pot in the monoculture, while in the pots designed for the mixed culture of maize and cowpea, maize and tomato, cowpea and tomato, three seeds of each plant were sown. Two seeds of each plant were sown in the pots with the three crops. The treatments were then supplied with 500 mL of tap water in the morning and in the evening respectively until the seedlings become fully established. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically with three replicates. Plant growth indices were determined according to Hunts (1978) using leaf area and dry matter data collected at four and six weeks after planting. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analytical software SAS version 9.2. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigments accumulation (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) in maize (15.98, 23.92 and 44.72 μM), Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tomato plants (12.48 and 1,178.7 μM) in the sole stands were more than the mixed culture of maize with cowpea and tomato (7.195, 14.74 and 0.00 μM). Also, total Chlorophyll in maize (1,127.8 μM), Chlorophyll a and total Chlorophyll in tomato (3.95 and 1,317.5 μM) in the mixed culture were more than in the sole culture of maize (1,030.9 μM) and tomato plants (-9.40 and 546.3 μM). The different photosynthetic pigments accumulated in cowpea were greatly enhanced in the mixed culture than in the sole culture. All the photosynthetic pigments of maize, cowpea and tomato in all the treatments analysed in this study were significantly different at P>0.05. Plant growth indices such as net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate and tissue water contents of these plants had higher value in the intercropped than the check crop (sole). These plant growth indices were significantly different to one another at P>0.05. This study concluded that competition for shared resources in the mixed culture of tomato, maize and cowpea enhanced growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments.
• A mathematical approach to evaluate maximum frost heave of unsaturated silty clay
• Lin Geng, XianZhang Ling, Liang Tang, Jun Luo, XiuLi Du
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00438
• 2017, 9 (5): 438–446 Abstract (131) PDF (2776 KB) (107)
• Maximum frost heave of unsaturated frost-susceptible soils, in conjunction with a high water table, is an important consideration for the design of foundations in seasonally frozen regions. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate accurately and efficiently the maximum frost heave for a given soil. For this purpose, a series of one-sided freezing experiments was conducted on unsaturated silty clay in an open system. Multistage cooling of sufficient duration was applied to the soil sample's top, while constant above-zero temperatures were maintained at the bottom. Then, a simple methodology for calculating maximum frost heave at a given cooling temperature was derived utilizing information obtained within the limited time allotted for each stage. On this basis, an empirical equation for defining maximum frost heave as a function of cooling temperature and overburden pressure was determined. Overall, this study provides a simple and practical procedure that is applicable to the evaluation of maximum frost heave of unsaturated frost-susceptible soils.
• Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions
• YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045
• 2021, 13 (1): 1–17 Abstract (276) HTML (107) PDF (4971 KB) (341)
• A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.

• Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg
• Sakpere A.M.A.
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00350.
• 2019, 11 (5): 350–359 Abstract (4040) HTML (270) PDF (2153 KB) (281)
• This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm $×$ 22cm $×$ 5cm) lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.

• Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
• XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
• 2020, 12 (4): 234–241 Abstract (137) HTML (5) PDF (1421 KB) (253)
• Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

• Research on pile performance and state-of-the-art practice in cold regions
• JianKun Liu, TengFei Wang, Zhi Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00001
• 2018, 10 (1): 1–11 Abstract (713) PDF (3430 KB) (237)
• A pile foundation is commonly adopted in geotechnical engineering to support structures, and its application has been extended to cold-regions engineering. In past decades, a host of scholars investigated pile behaviors and proposed design guidelines for seasonally frozen ground or permafrost. This paper reviews the research with respect to pile performance and engineering practice in cold regions, organized as follows: (1) creep tests and bearing capacity, (2) frost-jacking hazards, (3) laterally loaded piles, (4) dynamic responses, (5) refreezing due to concrete-hydration heat, and (6) improved countermeasures and design methods. We first summarize previous research and recent progress; then, predict the development trend of pile foundations in cold regions and recommend further research.
• Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal
• Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00357
• 2018, 10 (5): 357–368 Abstract (373) HTML (310) PDF (4797 KB) (231)
• The extensive debris that covers glaciers in the ablation zone of the Himalayan region plays an important part in regulating ablation rates and water availability for the downstream region. The melt rate of ice is determined by the amount of heat conducted through debris material lying over the ice. This study presents the vertical temperature gradients, thermal properties in terms of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and positive degree-day factors for the debris-covered portion of Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya using field-based measurements from three different seasons. Field measurements include debris temperatures at different debris thicknesses, air temperature, and ice melt during the monsoon (2013), winter (2013), and pre-monsoon (2014) seasons. We used a thermal equation to estimate thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and degree-day factors (DDF) were calculated from cumulative positive temperature and ice melt of the measurement period. Our analysis of debris temperature profiles at different depths of debris show the daily linear gradients of ?20.81 °C/m, 4.05 °C/m, and ?7.79 °C/m in the monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. The values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in the monsoon season were 10 times greater than in the winter season. The large difference in these values is attributed to surface temperature and moisture content within the debris. Similarly, we found higher values of DDFs at thinner debris for the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season although we observed less melting during the pre-monsoon season. This is attributed to higher cumulative temperature during the monsoon season than in the pre-monsoon season. Our study advances our understanding of heat conductivity through debris material in different seasons, which supports estimating ice melt and discharge from glacierized river basins with debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan region.

• Thickness estimation of the Longbasaba Glacier: methods and application
• GuangLi He,JunFeng Wei,Xin Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00477
• 2020, 12 (6): 477–490 Abstract (47) HTML (2) PDF (4573 KB) (231)
• A total of 71,177 glaciers exist on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, according to the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0). Despite their large number, glacier ice thickness data are relatively scarce. This study utilizes digital elevation model data and ground-penetrating radar thickness measurements to estimate the distribution and variation of ice thickness of the Longbasaba Glacier using Glacier bed Topography (GlabTop), a full-width expansion model, and the Huss and Farinotti (HF) model. Results show that the average absolute deviations of GlabTop, the full-width expansion model, and the HF model are 9.8, 15.5, and 10.9 m, respectively, indicating that GlabTop performs the best in simulating glacier thickness distribution. During 1980-2015, the Longbasaba Glacier thinned by an average of 7.9±1.3 m or 0.23±0.04 m/a, and its ice volume shrunk by 0.28±0.04 km3 with an average reduction rate of 0.0081±0.0001 km3/a. In the investigation period, the area and volume of Longbasaba Lake expanded at rates of 0.12±0.01 km2/a and 0.0132±0.0018 km3/a, respectively. This proglacial lake could potentially extend up to 5,000 m from the lake dam.

• Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment
• ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012.
• 2020, 12 (1): 12–21 Abstract (73) HTML (5) PDF (6304 KB) (213)
• In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.

• Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings
• YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447
• 2020, 12 (6): 447–460 Abstract (46) HTML (1) PDF (6723 KB) (198)
• Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.

• Characteristics and changes of permafrost along the engineering corridor of National Highway 214 in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
• Yu Sheng,JiChun Wu,Wei Cao,JianHong Fang,AnHua Xu,ErXing Peng
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00503
• 2020, 12 (6): 503–516 Abstract (196) HTML (4) PDF (7387 KB) (198)
• Due to a series of linear projects built along National Highway 214, the second "Permafrost Engineering Corridor" on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has formed. In this paper, by overcoming the problems of data decentralization and standard inconsistency, permafrost characteristics and changes along the engineering corridor are systematically summarized based on the survey and monitoring data. The results show that: 1) Being controlled by elevation, the permafrost is distributed in flake discontinuity with mountains as the center along the line. The total length of the road section in permafrost regions is 365 km, of which the total length of the permafrost section of National Highway 214 is 216.7 km, and the total length of the permafrost section of Gong-Yu Expressway is 197.3 km. The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) is higher than -1.5 °C, and permafrost with MAGT lower than -1.5 °C is only distributed in the sections at Bayan Har Mountain and E'la Mountain. There are obvious differences in the distribution of ground ice in the different sections along the engineering corridor. The sections with high ice content are mainly located in Zuimatan, Duogerong Plain and the top of north and south slope of Bayan Har Mountain. The permafrost thickness is controlled by the ground temperature, and permafrost thickness increases with the decrease of the ground temperature, with the change rate of about 37 m/°C. 2) Local factors (topography, landform, vegetation and lithology) affect the degradation process of permafrost, and then affect the distribution, ground temperature, thickness and ice content of permafrost. Asphalt pavement has greatly changed the heat exchange balance of the original ground, resulting in serious degradation of the permafrost. Due to the influence of roadbed direction trend, the phenomenon of shady-sunny slope is very significant in most sections along the line. The warming range of permafrost under the roadbed is gradually smaller with the increase of depth, so the thawing settlement of the shallow section with high ice-content permafrost is more significant.

• Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau
• Xia Zhao,JunFeng Wang,Yun Wang,Xiang Lu,ShaoFang Liu,YuBao Zhang,ZhiHong Guo,ZhongKui Xie,RuoYu Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00407.
• 2019, 11 (6): 407–418 Abstract (129) HTML (20) PDF (4670 KB) (193)
• An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.

• Characteristics of climate and melt runoff in the Koxkar Glacier River Basin, south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China
• Min Xu,HaiDong Han,ShiChang Kang,Hua Tao
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00435.
• 2019, 11 (6): 435–447 Abstract (70) HTML (9) PDF (5258 KB) (172)
• Hydrology of the high glacierized region in the Tianshan Mountains is an important water resource for arid and semiarid areas of China, even Central Asia. The hydrological process is complex to understand, due to the high variability in climate and the lack of hydrometeorological data. Based on field observations, the present study analyzes the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Koxkar Glacier River Basin during 2008-2011; and the factors influencing climate impact on glacier hydrology are discussed. The results show that precipitation at the terminus of the glacier was 426.2 mm, 471.8 mm, 624.9 mm, and 532 mm in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Discharge increases starting in May, reaches its highest value in July and August, and then starts to decrease. The mean annual discharge was 118.23×106 m3 during the four years observed, with 87.0% occurring in the ablation season (May-September). During the study period, the runoff in August accounted for 29% of total streamflow, followed by July (22%) and June (14%). The runoff exhibited obviously high interannual variability from April to September, induced by drastic changes in climate factors. Discharge autocorrelations are very high for all the years. The climate factors show different influences on discharge. The highest correlation R between daily temperature and discharge was for a time lag of 2-3 days on the Koxkar Glacier (0.66-0.76). The daily depth of runoff to daily temperature and daily water vapor pressure had an R 2 value of 0.56 and 0.69, respectively, which could be described by an exponential function. A closer relationship is found between runoff and either temperature or water vapor pressure on a monthly scale; the R 2 values are 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. The study helps us to understand the mechanisms of the hydrological-meteorological system of typical regional glaciers and to provide a reference for glacier-runoff simulations and water-resource management.

• Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents
• Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382.
• 2019, 11 (5): 382–388 Abstract (104) HTML (14) PDF (670 KB) (168)
• This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

• Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
• JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
• 2017, 9 (3): 221–228 Abstract (167) PDF (4411 KB) (157)
• The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
• An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China
• TangTang Zhang,Mekonnen Gebremichael,Akash Koppa,XianHong Meng,Qun Du,Jun Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00461.
• 2019, 11 (6): 461–469 Abstract (161) HTML (247) PDF (2806 KB) (156)
• In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.

• Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan
• Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055
• 2018, 10 (1): 55–68 Abstract (89) PDF (4789 KB) (151)
• Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
• Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China
• Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400
• 2016, 8 (5): 400–410 Abstract (101) PDF (2545 KB) (144)
• Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
• Evaluating effects of Dielectric Models on the surface soil moisture retrieval in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
• Rong Liu,Xin Wang,ZuoLiang Wang,Jun Wen
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20067
• 2021, 13 (1): 62–76 Abstract (118) HTML (11) PDF (7208 KB) (144)
• Based on the measurement of L-band ground-based microwave radiometer (ELBARA-III type) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the $τ-ω$ radiative transfer model, this research evaluated the effects of four soil dielectric models, i.e., Wang-Schmugge, Mironov, Dobson, and Four-phase, on the L-band microwave brightness temperature simulation and soil moisture retrieval. The results show that with the same vegetation and roughness parameterization scheme, the four soil dielectric models display obvious differences in microwave brightness temperature simulation. When the soil moisture is less than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature in Wang-Schmugge model is significantly different from that of the other three models, with maximum differences of horizontal polarization and vertical polarization reaching 8.0 K and 4.4 K, respectively; when the soil moisture is greater than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature of Four-phase significantly exceeds that of the other three models; when the soil moisture is saturated, maximum differences in simulated microwave brightness temperature with horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are 6.1 K and 4.8 K respectively, and the four soil dielectric models are more variable in the microwave brightness temperature simulation with horizontal polarization than that with vertical polarization. As for the soil moisture retrieval based on the four dielectric models, the comparison study shows that, under the condition of horizontal polarization, Wang-Schmugge model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture underestimating the observed soil moisture more effectively than other parameterization schemes, while under the condition of vertical polarization, the Mironov model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture overestimating the observed soil moisture. Finally, based on the Wang-Schmugge model and FengYun-3C observation data, the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study area is retrieved.

• A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587
• 2017, 9 (6): 587–598 Abstract (66) PDF (2416 KB) (141)
• Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
• Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205
• 2016, 8 (3): 205–211 Abstract (113) PDF (325 KB) (141)
• Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
• Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method
• TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071.
• 2020, 12 (2): 71–82 Abstract (126) HTML (9) PDF (4245 KB) (141)
• Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

• Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region
• Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00404
• 2018, 10 (5): 404–412 Abstract (85) HTML (10) PDF (4973 KB) (137)
• For estimating the altitude-distribution pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands and analyzing the possible mechanism for this distribution, a detailed study was performed through a series of field vegetation surveys and soil samplings from 90 vegetation plots and 45 soil profiles at 9 sites of the Hexi Corridor region, Northwestern China. Aboveground, belowground, and litter-fall biomass-carbon stocks ranged from 43 to 109, 23 to 64, and 5 to 20 g/m2, with mean values of 80.82, 44.91, and 12.15 g/m2, respectively. Soil-carbon stocks varied between 2.88 and 3.98 kg/m2, with a mean value of 3.43 kg/m2 in the 0–100-cm soil layer. Both biomass- and soil-carbon stocks had an increasing tendency corresponding to the altitudinal gradient. A significantly negative correlation was found between soil-carbon stock and mean annual temperature, with further better correlations between soil- and biomass-carbon stocks, and mean annual precipitation. Furthermore, soil carbon was found to be positively correlated with soil-silt and -clay content, and negatively correlated with soil bulk density and the volume percent of gravel. It can be concluded that variations in soil texture and climate condition were the key factors influencing the altitudinal pattern of carbon stocks in this desert-grassland ecosystem. Thus, by using the linear-regression functions between altitude and carbon stocks, approximately 4.18 Tg carbon were predicted from the 1,260 km2 of desert grasslands in the study area.

• Zhangmu and Gyirong ports under the threat of glacial lake outburst flood
• MiaoMiao Qi,ShiYin Liu,YongPeng Gao
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00461
• 2020, 12 (6): 461–476 Abstract (48) HTML (5) PDF (11802 KB) (136)
• The Himalayas are prone to glacial lake outburst floods, which can pose a severe threat to downstream villages and infrastructure. The Zhangmu and Gyirong land treaty ports are located on the China-Nepal border in the central Himalayas. In recent years, the expansion of glacial lakes has increased the threat of these two port regions. This article describes the results of mapping the glacial lakes larger than 0.01 km2 in the Zhangmu and Gyirong port regions and analyzes their change. It provides a comprehensive assessment of potentially dangerous glacial lakes and predicts the development of future glacial lakes. From 1988 to 2019, the glacial lakes in these port regions underwent "expansion", and moraine-dammed lakes show the most significant expansion trend. A total of eleven potentially dangerous glacial lakes are identified based on the assessment criteria and historical outburst events; most expanded by more than 150% from 1988 to 2019, with some by over 500%. The Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake, is extremely prone to overtopping due to ice avalanches or the melting of dead ice in the dam. For other large lakes, such as the Jialongco, Gangxico and Galongco, ice avalanches may likely cause the lakes to burst besides self-destructive failure. The potential dangers of the Youmojianco glacial lakes, including lakes Nos. 9, 10 and 11, will increase in the future. In addition, the glacier-bed topography model predicts that 113 glacial lakes with a size larger than 0.01 km2, a total area of 11.88 km2 and a total volume of 6.37×109 m3 will form in the study area by the end of the 21 century. Due to global warming, the glacial lakes in the Zhangmu and Gyirong port regions will continue to grow in the short term, and hence the risk of glacial lake outburst floods will increase.

• Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region
• Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183
• 2017, 9 (3): 183–191 Abstract (150) PDF (757 KB) (133)
• The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
• Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
• BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
• 2019, 11 (5): 389–406 Abstract (91) HTML (14) PDF (4506 KB) (132)
• Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

• Relationship between ponding and topographic factors along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline in permafrost regions
• MingTang Chai,YanHu Mu,GuoYu Li,Wei Ma,Fei Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00419.
• 2019, 11 (6): 419–427 Abstract (125) HTML (19) PDF (4231 KB) (132)
• The original landform along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP, line 2) was disturbed during installation of pavement for the pipeline. Forest and vegetation coverage is dense, and runoff develops along the pipe. Since the operation of the CRCOP (line 2) began in 2018, ponding has appeared on both sides of the pipeline. If there is no drainage, ponding can hardly dissipate, due to the low permeability of the permafrost layer. With the supply of surface flow and the transportation of oil at positive temperatures, ponding promotes an increase in temperature and changes the boundary thermal conditions of the pipeline. Meanwhile, when the ponding freezes and thaws, frost heave threatens operational safety of the pipeline. Furthermore, the ponding can affect the thermal condition of line 1. In this paper, the distribution of ponding along the CRCOP was obtained by field investigation. The type and cause of ponding were summarized, and the catchment and stream order were extracted by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). According to the statistical results in attributes for topographic factors, it is known that ponding along the pipeline is relative to elevation, slope, aspect, and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Water easily accumulates at altitudes of 300-450 m, slopes within 3°-5°, aspect in the northeast or south, TWI within 13-16, flow direction in north-east-south, and flow length within 90-150 km. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the cause and characteristics of ponding along the pipeline.

• Characteristics of permafrost degradation in Northeast China and its ecological effects: A review
• ShanShan Chen,ShuYing Zang,Li Sun
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00001.
• 2020, 12 (1): 1–11 Abstract (133) HTML (19) PDF (1207 KB) (128)

• Cracking in an expansive soil under freeze–thaw cycles
• Yang Lu, SiHong Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00392
• 2017, 9 (4): 392–397 Abstract (153) PDF (2977 KB) (125)
• Expansive soils located in cold regions can easily endure the action of frost heaving and cyclic freezing–thawing. Cracking can also occur in expansive clayey soils under freeze–thaw cycles, of which little attention has been paid on this issue. In this study, laboratory experiment and cracking analysis were performed on an expansive soil. Crack patterns were quantitatively analyzed using the fractal concept. The relationships among crack pattern, water loss, number of freeze–thaw cycles, and fractal dimension were discussed. It was found that crack patterns on the surface exhibit a hierarchical network structure that is fractal at a statistical level. Cracks induced by freeze–thaw cycles are shorter, more irregularly oriented, and slowly evolves from an irregularly rectilinear pattern towards a polygonal or quasi–hexagonal one; water loss, closely related to specimen thickness, plays a significant role in the process of soil cracking; crack development under freeze-thaw cycles are not only attributed to capillary effect, but also to expansion and absorption effects.
• Coupling numerical simulation with remotely sensed information for the study of frozen soil dynamics
• HuiRan Gao,WanChang Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00404
• 2020, 12 (6): 404–417 Abstract (35) HTML (6) PDF (10153 KB) (125)
• The acquisition of spatial-temporal information of frozen soil is fundamental for the study of frozen soil dynamics and its feedback to climate change in cold regions. With advancement of remote sensing and better understanding of frozen soil dynamics, discrimination of freeze and thaw status of surface soil based on passive microwave remote sensing and numerical simulation of frozen soil processes under water and heat transfer principles provides valuable means for regional and global frozen soil dynamic monitoring and systematic spatial-temporal responses to global change. However, as an important data source of frozen soil processes, remotely sensed information has not yet been fully utilized in the numerical simulation of frozen soil processes. Although great progress has been made in remote sensing and frozen soil physics, yet few frozen soil research has been done on the application of remotely sensed information in association with the numerical model for frozen soil process studies. In the present study, a distributed numerical model for frozen soil dynamic studies based on coupled water-heat transferring theory in association with remotely sensed frozen soil datasets was developed. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the simulation, the remotely sensed frozen soil information was used to monitor and modify relevant parameters in the process of model simulation. The remotely sensed information and numerically simulated spatial-temporal frozen soil processes were validated by in-situ field observations in cold regions near the town of Naqu on the East-Central Tibetan Plateau. The results suggest that the overall accuracy of the algorithm for discriminating freeze and thaw status of surface soil based on passive microwave remote sensing was more than 95%. These results provided an accurate initial freeze and thaw status of surface soil for coupling and calibrating the numerical model of this study. The numerically simulated frozen soil processes demonstrated good performance of the distributed numerical model based on the coupled water-heat transferring theory. The relatively larger uncertainties of the numerical model were found in alternating periods between freezing and thawing of surface soil. The average accuracy increased by about 5% after integrating remotely sensed information on the surface soil. The simulation accuracy was significantly improved, especially in transition periods between freezing and thawing of the surface soil.

• Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China
• JingHu Pan, YanXing Hu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00163
• 2016, 8 (2): 163–176 Abstract (73) PDF (697 KB) (124)
• The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization,urbanization,informatization and agricultural modernization(so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China,and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China.This paper evaluated the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units,and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011.The efficiency evaluation index system was established.The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001-2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis(DEA) model.Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefecture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA).Finally,the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression(GWR) model.Results indicate that the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns.Overall,the efficiency is relatively low,and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies.The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001-2011,with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas.The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.
• Comparative studies on leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. in two different regions of desert habitat
• MengMeng Li, YuBing Liu, MeiLing Liu, Dan Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00229
• 2015, 7 (3): 229–237 Abstract (79) PDF (1449 KB) (122)
• In order to obtain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure to evaluate the responses of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. to different environmental factors, epidermal micromorphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mesophyll structure was studied by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Materials were selected from Linze County, Gansu Province (material A) and Qitai County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (material B) of China. Results show that lamina thickness was higher in material A, with one layer of epidermal cells in both adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and epidermal cell radial length was significantly longer in the adaxial surface. E. angustifolia leaves are typically bifacial, with a higher ratio of palisade to spongy tissue in material A. The thickness of trichome layer of epidermis was thicker in material A. In contrast, cell wall and cuticular wax of the epidermal cells were thinner in material A than in material B. Chloroplast ultrastructure was different with the approximate spherical chloroplast containing numerous starch grains and osmiophilic granules in material A, while only the spindly chloroplast contained starch grains in material B. Multiple layers of peltate or stellate-peltate trichomes occupied both leaf surfaces in material A and the abaxial surface in material B, while the adaxial surface of material B contained few trichomes. Stomata were not observed on the leaf surfaces in materials A and B by SEM because of trichome obstruction. Our results indicate that the leaf structure of E. angustifolia is closely correlated with environmental factors, and the combination of leaf epidermal micromorphology and mesophyll structure afford resistance to environmental stress.
• High-resolution mass spectrometric characterization of dissolved organic matter from warm and cold periods in the NEEM ice core
• JianZhong Xu, Amanda Grannas, CunDe Xiao, ZhiHeng Du, Amanda Willoughby, Patrick Hatcher, YanQing An
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00038
• 2018, 10 (1): 38–46 Abstract (90) PDF (3711 KB) (120)
• Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of ice cores but is currently poorly characterized. DOM from one Holocene sample (HS, aged at 1600-4500 B.P.) and one Last Glacial Maximum sample (LS, aged at 21000-25000 B.P.) from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core were analyzed by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). CHO compounds contributed 50% of the compounds identified in negative-ionization mode in these two samples, with significant contributions from organic N, S, and P compounds, likely suggesting that marine DOM was an important source in these samples. Overall, the chemical compositions are similar between these two samples, suggesting their consistent DOM sources. However, subtle differences in the DOM between these two samples are apparent and could indicate differences in source strength or chemistry occurring through both pre- and post-depositional processes. For example, higher relative amounts of condensed carbon compounds in the HS DOM (5%), compared to the LS DOM (2%), suggest potentially important contributions from terrestrial sources. Greater incorporation of P in the observed DOM in the LS DOM (22%), compared to the HS DOM (13%), indicate more active microbiological processes that likely contribute to phosphorus incorporation into the DOM pool. Although these two samples present only a preliminary analysis of DOM in glacial/interglacial periods, the data indicate a need to expand the analysis into a broader range of ice-core samples, geographical locations, and glacial/interglacial periods.
• Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
• Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
• 2018, 10 (4): 293–304 Abstract (104) HTML (16) PDF (1767 KB) (116)
• Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

• The simulation of LUCC based on Logistic-CA-Markov model in Qilian Mountain area, China
• HaiJun Wang, XiangDong Kong, Bo Zhang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00350
• 2016, 8 (4): 350–358 Abstract (123) PDF (3422 KB) (115)
• The Qilian mountain area was examined for using the Logistic-CA-Markov coupling model combined with GIS spatial analyst technology to research the transformation of LUCC, driving force system and simulate future tendency of variation. Results show that:(1) Woodland area decreased by 12.55%, while grassland, cultivated land, and settlement areas increased by 0.22%, 7.92%, and 0.03%, respectively, from 1986 to 2014. During the period of 1986 to 2000, forest degradation in the middle section of the mountain area decreased by 1,501.69 km2. Vegetation cover area improved, with a net increase of grassland area of 38.12 km2 from 2000 to 2014. (2) For constructing the system driving force, the best simulation scale was 210m×210m. Based on logistic regression analysis, the contribution (weight) of composite driving forces to land use and cover change was obtained, and the weight value was more objectively compared with AHP and MCE method. (3) In the natural scenarios, it is predicted that land use and cover distribution maps of Qilian mountain area in 2028 and 2042, and the Lee-Sallee index test was adopted. Over the next 27 years (2015-2042), farmland, woodland, grassland, settlement areas show an increasing trend, especially settlements with an obvious change of 0.56%. The area of bare land will decrease by 0.89%. Without environmental degradation, tremendous structural change of LUCC will not occur, and typical characteristic of the vertical zone of the mountain would remain. Farmland and settlement areas will increase, but only in the vicinity of Qilian and Sunan counties.
• Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)
• CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159
• 2018, 10 (2): 159–168 Abstract (96) PDF (1727 KB) (114)
• Both yield and quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) are seriously affected by continuous cropping. We attempted to understand the effects of intercropping on the obstacles associated with continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). The changes of rhizosphere microbial biomass and diversity in interplanting and monoculturing systems were studied by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technique. The contents and composition of lily root exudates were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The intercropping results of Lanzhou lily showed: (1) There was no difference in the composition of the rhizosphere soil microbes at the phylum level, but the relative abundance of the microbes decreased; and the relative abundance of harmful fungi such as Fusarium sp. increased. The relative abundance of Pleosporales sp. and other beneficial bacteria were reduced. After OTU (operational taxonomic unit) clustering, there were some beneficial bacteria, such as Chaetomium sp., in the lily rhizosphere soil in the interplanting system that had not existed in the single-cropping system. We did not find harmful bacteria that had existed in the single-cropping systm in the rhizosphere soil of interplanting system. The above results indicated that the changes of relative abundance of soil fungi and bacteria in lily rhizosphere soil was not conducive to improving the ecological structure of rhizosphere soil microbes. At the same time, the microbial composition change is very complex—beneficial and yet inadequate at the same time. (2) Root exudates provide a matrix for the growth of microorganisms. Combined with the detection of root exudates, the decrease in the composition of the root exudates of the lily was probably the reason for the decrease of the relative abundance of microbes after intercropping. At the same time, the decrease of the relative content of phenolic compounds, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms, did not increase the relative content of rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Changes in amino acids and total sugars may be responsible for the growth of Fusarium sp.. The results showed that the intercropping pattern did not noticeably alleviate the obstacle to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily, and the change of microbial biomass and diversity was even unfavorable. However, the emergence of some beneficial bacteria, the disappearance of harmful fungi, and other changes with intercropping are in favor of alleviation of obstacles to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily.
• Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance
• MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502
• 2018, 10 (6): 502–515 Abstract (112) HTML (7) PDF (784 KB) (113)
• Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.

• Effects of heavy metal (Pb) concentration on some growth parameters of plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00036
• 2016, 8 (1): 36–45 Abstract (75) PDF (303 KB) (112)
• This study investigated morphological variation and biomass accumulation that occurred in Sida acuta and Chromolaena odorata plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment. The study was carried out in the screen house at the Biological Gardens of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The experiment was a factorial combination of one heavy metal (Pb) at five levels of concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg) in a completely randomized design, and were replicated three times for each of the two plants and two levels (0 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg) of organic fertilizer (OBD-Plus). Each pot was filled with 5 kg of air-dried and sieved soil and placed on a plastic tray for the collection of excess water. Two weeks after planting, seedlings of uniform height were transplanted from the nursery to experimental pots at the rate of one seedling per pot and grown for 10 weeks. The growth parameters of the plants were biomonitored for 7 weeks. After 10 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and dried to calculate the biomass accumulation. The two plant species performed better under fertilizer application than without it. For each of the plant species the growth parameters decreased as the levels of Pb concentration increased. Furthermore, the plants' biomass decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the levels of Pb concentration increased. The organic fertilizer helped to improve the plants' performance in lead-polluted soil.
• Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil
• TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407
• 2015, 7 (4): 407–413 Abstract (77) PDF (4001 KB) (110)
• This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
• Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
• ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
• DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
• 2018, 10 (2): 114–125 Abstract (96) PDF (2925 KB) (109)
• Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
• Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress