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2021, 13 (6) Online: 31 December 2021 Previous issue
  • Cryogenic wedges on the NE Qinghai-Tibet and Ordos Plateaus: Their characteristics, origin and OSL dating
  • Stuart A. Harris
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20100
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 463–473 Abstract ( 57) HTML ( 0) PDF (2478 KB) ( 26 )
  • Cryogenic wedges developed due to very cold, rather arid conditions during the maximum of the last cold event when the drying up of the neighboring China Sea resulted in the failure of the East Asian Monsoon. As the climate ameliorated and the Monsoon rains reappeared, ice-wedges developed. Further warming permitted thawing of the ice infillings accompanied by replacement of the ice by sediments partly from the host ground as well as from the surface by wind or sheet wash. In cases of extreme surface water flow on slopes after 10 ka B.P., small baydjarakhs typically c. 50 cm high developed, only to have the resulting hollows infilled by sediments carried by wind and/or sheet wash. These shallow structures form a network on top of many of the cryogenic wedges. This complex history makes dating the ages of the wedges difficult using OSL methodology. Unfortunately, past field work ignored the problem of the angle of the cut face to the direction of the wedge infilling when sampling the contents of the narrow wedges, resulting in potential contamination of the samples with the host sediment. Sampling of the larger deposits should be alright, but the likelihood of contamination makes the interpretation of the resulting OSL dates from the narrow wedges questionable. Primary wedges consisting of primary mineral infillings should still have similar OSL dates with depth for a given wedge, but the distinction between ice-wedge infillings and soil wedges is difficult since both can exhibit older dates of the infillings with depth. The available data suggests that ice-wedges were significantly more common than sediment-filled primary wedges. A protocol to avoid having to obtain large numbers of OSL dates by more careful field sampling and the use of grain size determinations is provided in the Appendix.

  • High-precision measurements of the inter-annual evolution for Urumqi Glacier No.1 in eastern Tien Shan, China
  • ChunHai Xu,ZhongQin Li,JianXin Mu,PuYu Wang,FeiTeng Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20094
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 474–487 Abstract ( 26) HTML ( 1) PDF (13475 KB) ( 18 )
  • High-precision measuring of glacier evolution remains a challenge as the available global and regional remote sensing techniques cannot satisfactorily capture the local-scale processes of most small- and medium-sized mountain glaciers. In this study, we use a high-precision local remote sensing technique, long-range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), to measure the evolution of Urumqi Glacier No.1 at an annual scale. We found that the dense point clouds derived from the TLS survey can be used to reconstruct glacier surface terrain, with certain details, such as depressions, debris-covered areas, and supra-glacial drainages can be distinguished. The glacier experienced pronounced thickness thinning and continuous retreat over the last four mass-balance years (2015-2019). The mean surface slope of Urumqi Glacier No.1 gradually steepened, which may increase the removal of glacier mass. The glacier was deeply incised by two very prominent primary supra-glacial rivers, and those rivers presented a widening trend. Extensive networks of supra-glacial channels had a significant impact on accelerated glacier mass loss. High-precision measuring is of vital importance to understanding the annual evolution of this type of glacier.

  • Satellite-measured water vapor isotopologues across the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia
  • ShengJie Wang,Yang Song,MingJun Zhang,Athanassios A. Argiriou,YuDong Shi
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.21001
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 488–495 Abstract ( 10) PDF (4476 KB) ( 25 )
  • The satellite-based water vapor stable isotope measurements have been widely used in modern hydrological and atmospheric studies. Their use is important for arid areas where the precipitation events are limited, and below-cloud evaporation is strong. This study presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of water vapor isotopologue across the Tianshan Mountains in arid central Asia using the NASA Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The near-surface water vapor stable isotopes are enriched in summer and depleted in winter, consistent with the seasonality of precipitation isotopes. From the surface to 200 hPa, the isotope values in water vapor show a decreasing trend as the atmospheric pressure decreases and elevation rises. The vapor isotope values in the lower atmosphere in the southern basin of the Tianshan Mountains are usually higher than that in the northern basin, and the seasonal difference in vapor isotopes is slightly more significant in the southern basin. In addition, bottom vapor isotopologue in summer shows a depletion trend from west to east, consistent with the rainout effect of the westerly moisture path in central Asia. The isotopic signature provided by the TES is helpful to understand the moisture transport and below-cloud processes influencing stable water isotopes in meteoric water.

  • Climate response and radial growth of Pinus tabulaeformis at different altitudes in Qilian Mountains
  • Liang Jiao,ChangLiang Qi,RuHong Xue,Ke Chen,XiaoPing Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20080
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 496–509 Abstract ( 8) HTML ( 1) PDF (6796 KB) ( 12 )
  • In order to test whether the relationship between climate and the radial growth of trees is affected by altitude, altitude variability and time stability of climate-influenced radial growth of a dominant conifer, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis), in the eastern Qilian Mountains were studied against the background of climate change using dendrochronology. Results show that 1) droughts at the end of the growing season of last year and during the early and middle growing season of the current year were the main limiting factors for the radial growth of Chinese pine at two altitude gradients; this was determined by analyzing the relationship between tree-ring width chronologies and climate factors. 2) The sensitivity of the radial growth of trees to climate change gradually decreased and was affected more by drought stress at a lower altitude. 3) An unstable divergence response was observed in the radial growth at the two altitudes, in response to controlling climatic factors; this observation was based on the moving correlation analysis of growth/climate relationships, and the aggravation of drought stress caused by increasing temperature was the main reason. 4) The growth rate of Chinese pine at the two altitudes increased at first and then decreased, as measured by basal area increment (BAI) modeling. Future temperature rises may have significant effects on mountain forest ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. Effective management and protection measures should be taken, according to the response patterns of trees to climate change at different altitude gradients.

  • Long-term effects of gravel-sand mulch thickness on soil microbes and enzyme activities in semi-arid Loess Plateau, Northwest China
  • ChengZheng Zhao,YaJun Wang,Yang Qiu,ZhongKui Xie,YuBao Zhang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.21012
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 510–521 Abstract ( 10) HTML ( 1) PDF (4732 KB) ( 9 )
  • In semi-arid areas of China, gravel and sand mulch is a farming technique with a long history. In this study, a sample survey was conducted on long term gravel sand mulch observational fields in the Northwest Loess Plateau to determine the effects of long term mulch on soil microbial and soil enzyme activities. We found that after long term gravel-sand mulch, compared with bare ground, soil organic matter, alkali nitrogen, conductivity decreased, while pH and soil moisture increased. Urease, saccharase and catalase decreased with increased mulch thickness, while alkaline phosphatase was reversed. The results of Illumina MiSeq sequencing shows that after gravel-sand mulch, the bacterial and fungal community structure was different from bare land, and the diversity was reduced. Compared with bare land, the bacteria Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria abundance increased with increased thickness, and Actinobacteria was opposite. Also, at the fungal genus level, Fusarium abundance was significantly reduced, and Remersonia was significantly increased, compared with bare land. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil environmental factors were important drivers of bacterial community changes. Overall, this study revealed some of the reasons for soil degradation after long term gravel-sand mulch. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition of exogenous soil nutrients after long term gravel-sand can help improve soil quality.

  • Seasonal variation of airborne fungi of the Tiantishan Grottoes and Western Xia Museum, Wuwei, China
  • YuLong Duan,FaSi Wu,DongPeng He,RuiHong Xu,HuYuan Feng,Tuo Chen,GuangXiu Liu,WanFu Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20102
  • 2021, Vol.13 (6): 522–532 Abstract ( 13) HTML ( 3) PDF (4500 KB) ( 9 )
  • In this study, a systematic survey of cultural airborne fungi was carried out in the occurrence environments of wall paintings that are preserved in the Tiantishan Grottoes and the Western Xia Museum, China. A bio-aerosol sampler was used for sampling in four seasons in 2016. Culture-dependent and -independent methods were taken to acquire airborne fungal concentration and purified strains; by the extraction of genomic DNA, amplification of fungal ITS rRNA gene region, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, thereafter the fungal community composition and distribution characteristics of different study sites were clarified. We disclosure the main environmental factors which may be responsible for dynamic changes of airborne fungi at the sampling sites. The concentration of cultural airborne fungi was in a range from 13 to 1,576 CFU/m3, no significant difference between the two sites at the Tiantishan Grottoes, with obvious characteristics of seasonal variation, in winter and spring were higher than in summer and autumn. Also, there was a significant difference in fungal concentration between the inside and outside of the Western Xia Museum, the outside of the museum was far more than the inside of the museum in the four seasons, particularly in the winter. Eight fungal genera were detected, including Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Filobasidium as the dominant groups. The airborne fungal community structures of the Tiantishan Grottoes show a distinct characteristic of seasonal variation and spatial distribution. Relative humidity, temperature and seasonal rainfall influence airborne fungal distribution. Some of the isolated strains have the potential to cause biodeterioration of ancient wall paintings. This study provides supporting information for the pre-warning conservation of cultural relics that are preserved at local sites and inside museums.

  • Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions
  • YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045
  • 2021, 13 (1): 1–17 Abstract (559) HTML (23852) PDF (4971 KB) (581)
  • A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.

  • Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg
  • Sakpere A.M.A.
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00350.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 350–359 Abstract (4487) HTML (30925) PDF (2153 KB) (475)
  • This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm × 22cm × 5cm) lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.

  • Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents
  • Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 382–388 Abstract (239) HTML (1719) PDF (670 KB) (465)
  • This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  • Research on pile performance and state-of-the-art practice in cold regions
  • JianKun Liu, TengFei Wang, Zhi Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00001
  • 2018, 10 (1): 1–11 Abstract (812) PDF (3430 KB) (410)
  • A pile foundation is commonly adopted in geotechnical engineering to support structures, and its application has been extended to cold-regions engineering. In past decades, a host of scholars investigated pile behaviors and proposed design guidelines for seasonally frozen ground or permafrost. This paper reviews the research with respect to pile performance and engineering practice in cold regions, organized as follows: (1) creep tests and bearing capacity, (2) frost-jacking hazards, (3) laterally loaded piles, (4) dynamic responses, (5) refreezing due to concrete-hydration heat, and (6) improved countermeasures and design methods. We first summarize previous research and recent progress; then, predict the development trend of pile foundations in cold regions and recommend further research.
  • Frost susceptibility of soils―A confusing concept that can misguide geotechnical design in cold regions
  • DaiChao Sheng
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20051
  • 2021, 13 (2): 87–94 Abstract (197) HTML (13271) PDF (3999 KB) (399)
  • Frost susceptibility is a concept widely used in cold region geotechnical design, to quantify the capacity of a soil in generating frost heave and frost damage. The laboratory test used to verify frost susceptibility of a soil is based on the measurement of frost heave generated in the soil under specific conditions. In reality this concept is, however, more related to the soil's potential to thaw weakening than to frost heave. Recent experimental studies show that frost non-susceptible soils like clean sand and clean gavel can also generate much ice segregation and frost heave if the conditions are favourable, hence challenging the usefulness and suitability of soil classification based on frost susceptibility. It is further shown that the concept is not suitable for design scenarios where frost heave itself is a serious hazard, such as in high-speed rail embankments.

  • Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal
  • Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00357
  • 2018, 10 (5): 357–368 Abstract (447) HTML (14866) PDF (4797 KB) (397)
  • The extensive debris that covers glaciers in the ablation zone of the Himalayan region plays an important part in regulating ablation rates and water availability for the downstream region. The melt rate of ice is determined by the amount of heat conducted through debris material lying over the ice. This study presents the vertical temperature gradients, thermal properties in terms of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and positive degree-day factors for the debris-covered portion of Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya using field-based measurements from three different seasons. Field measurements include debris temperatures at different debris thicknesses, air temperature, and ice melt during the monsoon (2013), winter (2013), and pre-monsoon (2014) seasons. We used a thermal equation to estimate thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and degree-day factors (DDF) were calculated from cumulative positive temperature and ice melt of the measurement period. Our analysis of debris temperature profiles at different depths of debris show the daily linear gradients of ?20.81 °C/m, 4.05 °C/m, and ?7.79 °C/m in the monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. The values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in the monsoon season were 10 times greater than in the winter season. The large difference in these values is attributed to surface temperature and moisture content within the debris. Similarly, we found higher values of DDFs at thinner debris for the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season although we observed less melting during the pre-monsoon season. This is attributed to higher cumulative temperature during the monsoon season than in the pre-monsoon season. Our study advances our understanding of heat conductivity through debris material in different seasons, which supports estimating ice melt and discharge from glacierized river basins with debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan region.

  • Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings
  • YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447
  • 2020, 12 (6): 447–460 Abstract (150) HTML (3293) PDF (6723 KB) (394)
  • Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.

  • Characteristics of permafrost degradation in Northeast China and its ecological effects: A review
  • ShanShan Chen,ShuYing Zang,Li Sun
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00001.
  • 2020, 12 (1): 1–11 Abstract (225) HTML (512) PDF (1207 KB) (389)
  • Latitudinal permafrost in Northern Northeast (NNE) China is located in the southern margin of the Eurasian continent, and is very sensitive to climatic and environmental change. Numerical simulations indicate that air temperature in the permafrost regions of Northeast China has been on the rise since the 1950s, and will keep rising in the 21st century, leading to extensive degradation of permafrost. Permafrost degradation in NNE China has its own characteristics, such as northward shifts in the shape of a "W" for the permafrost southern boundary (SLP), discontinuous permafrost degradation into island-like frozen soil, and gradually disappearing island permafrost. Permafrost degradation leads to deterioration of the ecological environment in cold regions. As a result, the belt of larch forests dominated by Larix gmelinii has shifted northwards and wetland areas with symbiotic relationships with permafrost have decreased significantly. With rapid retreat and thinning of permafrost and vegetation change, the CO2 and CH4 flux increases with mean air temperature from continuous to sporadic permafrost areas as a result of activity of methanogen enhancement, positively feeding back to climate warming. This paper reviews the features of permafrost degradation, the effects of permafrost degradation on wetland and forest ecosystem structure and function, and greenhouse gas emissions on latitudinal permafrost in NNE China. We also put forward critical questions about the aforementioned effects, including: (1) establish long-term permafrost observation systems to evaluate the distribution of permafrost and SLP change, in order to study the feedback of permafrost to climate change; (2) carry out research about the effects of permafrost degradation on the wetland ecosystem and the response of Xing'an larch to global change, and predict ecosystem dynamics in permafrost degradation based on long-term field observation; (3) focus intensively on the dynamics of greenhouse gas flux in permafrost degradation of Northeast China and the feedback of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change; (4) quantitative studies on the permafrost carbon feedback and vegetation carbon feedback due to permafrost change to climate multi-impact and estimate the balance of C in permafrost regions in the future.

  • Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
  • JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
  • 2017, 9 (3): 221–228 Abstract (295) PDF (4411 KB) (376)
  • The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
  • Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
  • XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
  • 2020, 12 (4): 234–241 Abstract (196) HTML (14574) PDF (1421 KB) (351)
  • Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

  • Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment
  • ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012.
  • 2020, 12 (1): 12–21 Abstract (153) HTML (7798) PDF (6304 KB) (345)
  • In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.

  • Thickness estimation of the Longbasaba Glacier: methods and application
  • GuangLi He,JunFeng Wei,Xin Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00477
  • 2020, 12 (6): 477–490 Abstract (120) HTML (8769) PDF (4573 KB) (325)
  • A total of 71,177 glaciers exist on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, according to the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0). Despite their large number, glacier ice thickness data are relatively scarce. This study utilizes digital elevation model data and ground-penetrating radar thickness measurements to estimate the distribution and variation of ice thickness of the Longbasaba Glacier using Glacier bed Topography (GlabTop), a full-width expansion model, and the Huss and Farinotti (HF) model. Results show that the average absolute deviations of GlabTop, the full-width expansion model, and the HF model are 9.8, 15.5, and 10.9 m, respectively, indicating that GlabTop performs the best in simulating glacier thickness distribution. During 1980-2015, the Longbasaba Glacier thinned by an average of 7.9±1.3 m or 0.23±0.04 m/a, and its ice volume shrunk by 0.28±0.04 km3 with an average reduction rate of 0.0081±0.0001 km3/a. In the investigation period, the area and volume of Longbasaba Lake expanded at rates of 0.12±0.01 km2/a and 0.0132±0.0018 km3/a, respectively. This proglacial lake could potentially extend up to 5,000 m from the lake dam.

  • Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth
  • Gideon O. Okunlola, Richard O. Akinwale, Adekunle A. Adelusi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205
  • 2016, 8 (3): 205–211 Abstract (202) PDF (325 KB) (315)
  • Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
  • Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055
  • 2018, 10 (1): 55–68 Abstract (164) PDF (4789 KB) (306)
  • Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
  • Cracking in an expansive soil under freeze–thaw cycles
  • Yang Lu, SiHong Liu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00392
  • 2017, 9 (4): 392–397 Abstract (248) PDF (2977 KB) (304)
  • Expansive soils located in cold regions can easily endure the action of frost heaving and cyclic freezing–thawing. Cracking can also occur in expansive clayey soils under freeze–thaw cycles, of which little attention has been paid on this issue. In this study, laboratory experiment and cracking analysis were performed on an expansive soil. Crack patterns were quantitatively analyzed using the fractal concept. The relationships among crack pattern, water loss, number of freeze–thaw cycles, and fractal dimension were discussed. It was found that crack patterns on the surface exhibit a hierarchical network structure that is fractal at a statistical level. Cracks induced by freeze–thaw cycles are shorter, more irregularly oriented, and slowly evolves from an irregularly rectilinear pattern towards a polygonal or quasi–hexagonal one; water loss, closely related to specimen thickness, plays a significant role in the process of soil cracking; crack development under freeze-thaw cycles are not only attributed to capillary effect, but also to expansion and absorption effects.
  • A nonlinear interface structural damage model between ice crystal and frozen clay soil
  • Sheng Shi,Feng Zhang,KangWei Tang,DeCheng Feng,XuFeng Lu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20050
  • 2021, 13 (2): 150–166 Abstract (112) HTML (13698) PDF (10701 KB) (301)
  • The shear properties of ice-frozen soil interface are important when studying the constitutive model of frozen soil and slope stability in cold regions. In this research, a series of cryogenic direct shear tests for ice-frozen clay soil interface were conducted. Based on experimental results, a nonlinear interface structural damage model is proposed to describe the shear properties of ice-frozen clay soil interface. Firstly, the cementation and friction structural properties of frozen soil materials were analyzed, and a structural parameter of the ice-frozen clay soil interface is proposed based on the cryogenic direct shear test results. Secondly, a structural coefficient ratio is proposed to describe the structural development degree of ice-frozen clay soil interface under load, which is able to normalize the shear stress of ice-frozen clay soil interface, and the normalized data can be described by the Duncan-Chang model. Finally, the tangent stiffness of ice-frozen clay soil interface is calculated, which can be applied to the mechanics analysis of frozen soil. Also, the shear stress of ice-frozen clay soil interface calculated by the proposed model is compared with test results.

  • A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria
  • Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao, Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Sefiu Adekilekun Saheed
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587
  • 2017, 9 (6): 587–598 Abstract (127) PDF (2416 KB) (297)
  • Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
  • Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
  • BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 389–406 Abstract (205) HTML (822) PDF (4506 KB) (295)
  • Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

  • Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China
  • Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400
  • 2016, 8 (5): 400–410 Abstract (179) PDF (2545 KB) (294)
  • Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
  • Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method
  • TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071.
  • 2020, 12 (2): 71–82 Abstract (190) HTML (441) PDF (4245 KB) (294)
  • Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

  • Artificially frozen ground and related engineering technology in Japan
  • Satoshi Akagawa
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20046
  • 2021, 13 (2): 77–86 Abstract (228) HTML (32228) PDF (8720 KB) (294)
  • Since the 1970's, frozen ground has been developing near the Tokyo Bay area around liquefied natural gas (LNG) in-ground storage tanks. For disaster prevention purposes, the tanks are constructed below the ground surface. Since the temperature of the liquid stored in the tanks is -162 °C the soil surrounding the tanks freezes. Since this frozen ground has existed for almost half a century, we have permafrost near Tokyo. The development of artificial frozen ground may cause frost heaving, resulting in frost heave forces that may cause structural damage of adjacent LNG in-ground storage tanks. Therefore, the demand for frozen ground engineering increased and consequently we now have advanced technology in this area. Fortunately, we use this engineering technology and artificial ground freezing for civil engineering, especially in big and crowded cities like Tokyo. This paper provides a summary of the testing apparatus, test methods, and assessment methods for frost heaving.

  • Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region
  • Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183
  • 2017, 9 (3): 183–191 Abstract (226) PDF (757 KB) (289)
  • The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
  • Characteristics and changes of permafrost along the engineering corridor of National Highway 214 in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • Yu Sheng,JiChun Wu,Wei Cao,JianHong Fang,AnHua Xu,ErXing Peng
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00503
  • 2020, 12 (6): 503–516 Abstract (269) HTML (2116) PDF (7387 KB) (285)
  • Due to a series of linear projects built along National Highway 214, the second "Permafrost Engineering Corridor" on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has formed. In this paper, by overcoming the problems of data decentralization and standard inconsistency, permafrost characteristics and changes along the engineering corridor are systematically summarized based on the survey and monitoring data. The results show that: 1) Being controlled by elevation, the permafrost is distributed in flake discontinuity with mountains as the center along the line. The total length of the road section in permafrost regions is 365 km, of which the total length of the permafrost section of National Highway 214 is 216.7 km, and the total length of the permafrost section of Gong-Yu Expressway is 197.3 km. The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) is higher than -1.5 °C, and permafrost with MAGT lower than -1.5 °C is only distributed in the sections at Bayan Har Mountain and E'la Mountain. There are obvious differences in the distribution of ground ice in the different sections along the engineering corridor. The sections with high ice content are mainly located in Zuimatan, Duogerong Plain and the top of north and south slope of Bayan Har Mountain. The permafrost thickness is controlled by the ground temperature, and permafrost thickness increases with the decrease of the ground temperature, with the change rate of about 37 m/°C. 2) Local factors (topography, landform, vegetation and lithology) affect the degradation process of permafrost, and then affect the distribution, ground temperature, thickness and ice content of permafrost. Asphalt pavement has greatly changed the heat exchange balance of the original ground, resulting in serious degradation of the permafrost. Due to the influence of roadbed direction trend, the phenomenon of shady-sunny slope is very significant in most sections along the line. The warming range of permafrost under the roadbed is gradually smaller with the increase of depth, so the thawing settlement of the shallow section with high ice-content permafrost is more significant.

  • Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil
  • TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407
  • 2015, 7 (4): 407–413 Abstract (145) PDF (4001 KB) (283)
  • This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
  • Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region
  • Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00404
  • 2018, 10 (5): 404–412 Abstract (141) HTML (601) PDF (4973 KB) (280)
  • For estimating the altitude-distribution pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands and analyzing the possible mechanism for this distribution, a detailed study was performed through a series of field vegetation surveys and soil samplings from 90 vegetation plots and 45 soil profiles at 9 sites of the Hexi Corridor region, Northwestern China. Aboveground, belowground, and litter-fall biomass-carbon stocks ranged from 43 to 109, 23 to 64, and 5 to 20 g/m2, with mean values of 80.82, 44.91, and 12.15 g/m2, respectively. Soil-carbon stocks varied between 2.88 and 3.98 kg/m2, with a mean value of 3.43 kg/m2 in the 0–100-cm soil layer. Both biomass- and soil-carbon stocks had an increasing tendency corresponding to the altitudinal gradient. A significantly negative correlation was found between soil-carbon stock and mean annual temperature, with further better correlations between soil- and biomass-carbon stocks, and mean annual precipitation. Furthermore, soil carbon was found to be positively correlated with soil-silt and -clay content, and negatively correlated with soil bulk density and the volume percent of gravel. It can be concluded that variations in soil texture and climate condition were the key factors influencing the altitudinal pattern of carbon stocks in this desert-grassland ecosystem. Thus, by using the linear-regression functions between altitude and carbon stocks, approximately 4.18 Tg carbon were predicted from the 1,260 km2 of desert grasslands in the study area.

  • An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China
  • TangTang Zhang,Mekonnen Gebremichael,Akash Koppa,XianHong Meng,Qun Du,Jun Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00461.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 461–469 Abstract (218) HTML (1698) PDF (2806 KB) (280)
  • In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.

  • Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau
  • Xia Zhao,JunFeng Wang,Yun Wang,Xiang Lu,ShaoFang Liu,YuBao Zhang,ZhiHong Guo,ZhongKui Xie,RuoYu Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00407.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 407–418 Abstract (197) HTML (1876) PDF (4670 KB) (277)
  • An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.

  • Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
  • Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
  • 2018, 10 (4): 293–304 Abstract (176) HTML (26) PDF (1767 KB) (276)
  • Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

  • Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
  • ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
  • 2018, 10 (2): 114–125 Abstract (185) PDF (2925 KB) (270)
  • Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
  • Numerical simulation of artificial ground freezing in a fluid-saturated rock mass with account for filtration and mechanical processes
  • Ivan A. Panteleev, Anastasiia A. Kostina, Oleg A. Plekhov, Lev Yu. Levin
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00363
  • 2017, 9 (4): 363–377 Abstract (165) PDF (1995 KB) (270)
  • This study is devoted to the numerical simulation of the artificial ground freezing process in a fluid-saturated rock mass of the potassium salt deposit. A coupled model of nonstationary thermal conductivity, filtration and thermo-poroelasticity, which takes into account dependence of the physical properties on temperature and pressure, is proposed on the basis of the accepted hypotheses. The considered area is a cylinder with a depth of 256 meters and diameter of 26.5 meters and includes 13 layers with different thermophysical and filtration properties. Numerical simulation was carried out by the finite-element method. It has been shown that substantial ice wall formation occurs non-uniformly along the layers. This can be connected with geometry of the freezing wells and with difference in physical properties. The average width of the ice wall in each layer was calculated. It was demonstrated that two toroidal convective cells induced by thermogravitational convection were created from the very beginning of the freezing process. The effect of the constant seepage flow on the ice wall formation was investigated. It was shown that the presence of the slow flow lead to the delay in ice wall closure. In case of the flow with a velocity of more than 30 mm per day, closure of the ice wall was not observed at all in the foreseeable time.
  • An improvement of soil temperature simulations on the Tibetan Plateau
  • SiQiong Luo, BoLi Chen, ShiHua Lyu, XueWei Fang, JingYuan Wang, XianHong Meng, LunYu Shang, ShaoYing Wang, Di Ma
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00080
  • 2018, 10 (1): 80–94 Abstract (153) PDF (6264 KB) (269)
  • The simulation of soil temperature on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a dominant role in the performance of both global climate and numerical weather forecast models. To improve the simulation of soil temperature on the TP, the Johansen soil thermal conductivity parameterization scheme was introduced into Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5) and Regional Climatic Model 4 (RegCM4). The improved CLM3.5 and RegCM4-CLM were utilized to conduct offline and regional simulation experiments on the TP. Comparison of the new and old schemes revealed that CLM3.5 provides high thermal conductivity parameters of mineral soil solid on the TP. The Johansen scheme is more practical for the TP than the soil thermal conductivity parameterization in CLM3.5. The simulation of soil temperature and liquid water content was improved in offline experiment. The improved parameterization scheme can also reduce the simulation error of soil temperature in winter throughout the entire TP.
  • Characteristics of climate and melt runoff in the Koxkar Glacier River Basin, south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China
  • Min Xu,HaiDong Han,ShiChang Kang,Hua Tao
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00435.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 435–447 Abstract (137) HTML (1873) PDF (5258 KB) (259)
  • Hydrology of the high glacierized region in the Tianshan Mountains is an important water resource for arid and semiarid areas of China, even Central Asia. The hydrological process is complex to understand, due to the high variability in climate and the lack of hydrometeorological data. Based on field observations, the present study analyzes the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Koxkar Glacier River Basin during 2008-2011; and the factors influencing climate impact on glacier hydrology are discussed. The results show that precipitation at the terminus of the glacier was 426.2 mm, 471.8 mm, 624.9 mm, and 532 mm in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Discharge increases starting in May, reaches its highest value in July and August, and then starts to decrease. The mean annual discharge was 118.23×106 m3 during the four years observed, with 87.0% occurring in the ablation season (May-September). During the study period, the runoff in August accounted for 29% of total streamflow, followed by July (22%) and June (14%). The runoff exhibited obviously high interannual variability from April to September, induced by drastic changes in climate factors. Discharge autocorrelations are very high for all the years. The climate factors show different influences on discharge. The highest correlation R between daily temperature and discharge was for a time lag of 2-3 days on the Koxkar Glacier (0.66-0.76). The daily depth of runoff to daily temperature and daily water vapor pressure had an R 2 value of 0.56 and 0.69, respectively, which could be described by an exponential function. A closer relationship is found between runoff and either temperature or water vapor pressure on a monthly scale; the R 2 values are 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. The study helps us to understand the mechanisms of the hydrological-meteorological system of typical regional glaciers and to provide a reference for glacier-runoff simulations and water-resource management.

  • Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China
  • JingHu Pan, YanXing Hu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00163
  • 2016, 8 (2): 163–176 Abstract (155) PDF (697 KB) (258)
  • The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization,urbanization,informatization and agricultural modernization(so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China,and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China.This paper evaluated the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units,and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011.The efficiency evaluation index system was established.The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001-2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis(DEA) model.Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefecture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA).Finally,the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression(GWR) model.Results indicate that the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns.Overall,the efficiency is relatively low,and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies.The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001-2011,with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas.The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.
  • Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress
  • Ezekiel Dare Olowolaju, Adekunle Ajayi Adelusi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00120
  • 2017, 9 (2): 120–126 Abstract (174) PDF (2148 KB) (255)
  • This study aimed at investigating the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress. The study was carried out under a screen-house to minimize extraneous factors such as pests and rodents using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Seeds of cowpea, maize and tomato were collected from the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. These seeds were planted at a depth of about 3 mm below the soil. The seeds were sown at the rate of six seeds per pot in the monoculture, while in the pots designed for the mixed culture of maize and cowpea, maize and tomato, cowpea and tomato, three seeds of each plant were sown. Two seeds of each plant were sown in the pots with the three crops. The treatments were then supplied with 500 mL of tap water in the morning and in the evening respectively until the seedlings become fully established. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically with three replicates. Plant growth indices were determined according to Hunts (1978) using leaf area and dry matter data collected at four and six weeks after planting. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analytical software SAS version 9.2. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigments accumulation (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) in maize (15.98, 23.92 and 44.72 μM), Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tomato plants (12.48 and 1,178.7 μM) in the sole stands were more than the mixed culture of maize with cowpea and tomato (7.195, 14.74 and 0.00 μM). Also, total Chlorophyll in maize (1,127.8 μM), Chlorophyll a and total Chlorophyll in tomato (3.95 and 1,317.5 μM) in the mixed culture were more than in the sole culture of maize (1,030.9 μM) and tomato plants (-9.40 and 546.3 μM). The different photosynthetic pigments accumulated in cowpea were greatly enhanced in the mixed culture than in the sole culture. All the photosynthetic pigments of maize, cowpea and tomato in all the treatments analysed in this study were significantly different at P>0.05. Plant growth indices such as net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate and tissue water contents of these plants had higher value in the intercropped than the check crop (sole). These plant growth indices were significantly different to one another at P>0.05. This study concluded that competition for shared resources in the mixed culture of tomato, maize and cowpea enhanced growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments.
  • Processes of runoff in seasonally-frozen ground about a forested catchment of semiarid mountains
  • PengFei Lin,ZhiBin He,Jun Du,LongFei Chen,Xi Zhu,QuanYan Tian
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00272.
  • 2020, 12 (5): 272–283 Abstract (115) HTML (13) PDF (5854 KB) (255)
  • Climate warming increases the variability in runoff of semiarid mountains where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed. However, what is not well understood are the processes of runoff, hydrological drivers, and freeze-thaw cycles in seasonally-frozen ground in semiarid mountains. To understand how freeze-thaw cycles affect runoff processes in seasonally-frozen ground, we monitored hydrological processes in a typical headwater catchment with seasonally-frozen ground in Qilian Mountain, China, from 2002 to 2017. We analyzed the responses of runoff to temperature, precipitation, and seasonally-frozen ground to quantify process characteristics and driving factors. The results show that annual runoff was 88.5 mm accounting for 25.6% of rainfall, mainly concentrated in May to October, with baseflow of 36.44 mm. Peak runoff occurred in June, August, and September, i.e., accounting for spring and summer floods. Runoff during the spring flood was produced by a mix of rainfall, melting snow, and melting seasonally-frozen ground, and had a significant correlation with air temperature. Runoff was mainly due to precipitation accumulation during the summer flood. Air temperature, average soil temperature at 0-50 cm depth, and frozen soil depth variable explained 59.60% of the variation of runoff in the thawing period, while precipitation variable explained 21.9%. Thawing-period runoff and soil temperature had a >0.6 correlation coefficient (P <0.05). In the rainfall-period, runoff was also affected by temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation, which explained 33.6%, 34.1% and 18.1%, respectively. Our results show that increasing temperature and precipitation will have an irreversible impact on the hydrological regime in mountainous basins where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed.

  • Evaluating effects of Dielectric Models on the surface soil moisture retrieval in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • Rong Liu,Xin Wang,ZuoLiang Wang,Jun Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20067
  • 2021, 13 (1): 62–76 Abstract (188) HTML (3505) PDF (7208 KB) (251)
  • Based on the measurement of L-band ground-based microwave radiometer (ELBARA-III type) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the τ-ω radiative transfer model, this research evaluated the effects of four soil dielectric models, i.e., Wang-Schmugge, Mironov, Dobson, and Four-phase, on the L-band microwave brightness temperature simulation and soil moisture retrieval. The results show that with the same vegetation and roughness parameterization scheme, the four soil dielectric models display obvious differences in microwave brightness temperature simulation. When the soil moisture is less than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature in Wang-Schmugge model is significantly different from that of the other three models, with maximum differences of horizontal polarization and vertical polarization reaching 8.0 K and 4.4 K, respectively; when the soil moisture is greater than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature of Four-phase significantly exceeds that of the other three models; when the soil moisture is saturated, maximum differences in simulated microwave brightness temperature with horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are 6.1 K and 4.8 K respectively, and the four soil dielectric models are more variable in the microwave brightness temperature simulation with horizontal polarization than that with vertical polarization. As for the soil moisture retrieval based on the four dielectric models, the comparison study shows that, under the condition of horizontal polarization, Wang-Schmugge model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture underestimating the observed soil moisture more effectively than other parameterization schemes, while under the condition of vertical polarization, the Mironov model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture overestimating the observed soil moisture. Finally, based on the Wang-Schmugge model and FengYun-3C observation data, the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study area is retrieved.

  • Relationship between ponding and topographic factors along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline in permafrost regions
  • MingTang Chai,YanHu Mu,GuoYu Li,Wei Ma,Fei Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00419.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 419–427 Abstract (211) HTML (587) PDF (4231 KB) (249)
  • The original landform along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP, line 2) was disturbed during installation of pavement for the pipeline. Forest and vegetation coverage is dense, and runoff develops along the pipe. Since the operation of the CRCOP (line 2) began in 2018, ponding has appeared on both sides of the pipeline. If there is no drainage, ponding can hardly dissipate, due to the low permeability of the permafrost layer. With the supply of surface flow and the transportation of oil at positive temperatures, ponding promotes an increase in temperature and changes the boundary thermal conditions of the pipeline. Meanwhile, when the ponding freezes and thaws, frost heave threatens operational safety of the pipeline. Furthermore, the ponding can affect the thermal condition of line 1. In this paper, the distribution of ponding along the CRCOP was obtained by field investigation. The type and cause of ponding were summarized, and the catchment and stream order were extracted by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). According to the statistical results in attributes for topographic factors, it is known that ponding along the pipeline is relative to elevation, slope, aspect, and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Water easily accumulates at altitudes of 300-450 m, slopes within 3°-5°, aspect in the northeast or south, TWI within 13-16, flow direction in north-east-south, and flow length within 90-150 km. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the cause and characteristics of ponding along the pipeline.

  • Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)
  • CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159
  • 2018, 10 (2): 159–168 Abstract (191) PDF (1727 KB) (248)
  • Both yield and quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) are seriously affected by continuous cropping. We attempted to understand the effects of intercropping on the obstacles associated with continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). The changes of rhizosphere microbial biomass and diversity in interplanting and monoculturing systems were studied by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technique. The contents and composition of lily root exudates were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The intercropping results of Lanzhou lily showed: (1) There was no difference in the composition of the rhizosphere soil microbes at the phylum level, but the relative abundance of the microbes decreased; and the relative abundance of harmful fungi such as Fusarium sp. increased. The relative abundance of Pleosporales sp. and other beneficial bacteria were reduced. After OTU (operational taxonomic unit) clustering, there were some beneficial bacteria, such as Chaetomium sp., in the lily rhizosphere soil in the interplanting system that had not existed in the single-cropping system. We did not find harmful bacteria that had existed in the single-cropping systm in the rhizosphere soil of interplanting system. The above results indicated that the changes of relative abundance of soil fungi and bacteria in lily rhizosphere soil was not conducive to improving the ecological structure of rhizosphere soil microbes. At the same time, the microbial composition change is very complex—beneficial and yet inadequate at the same time. (2) Root exudates provide a matrix for the growth of microorganisms. Combined with the detection of root exudates, the decrease in the composition of the root exudates of the lily was probably the reason for the decrease of the relative abundance of microbes after intercropping. At the same time, the decrease of the relative content of phenolic compounds, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms, did not increase the relative content of rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Changes in amino acids and total sugars may be responsible for the growth of Fusarium sp.. The results showed that the intercropping pattern did not noticeably alleviate the obstacle to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily, and the change of microbial biomass and diversity was even unfavorable. However, the emergence of some beneficial bacteria, the disappearance of harmful fungi, and other changes with intercropping are in favor of alleviation of obstacles to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily.
  • Sandstone-concrete interface transition zone (ITZ) damage and debonding micromechanisms under freeze-thaw
  • YanJun Shen,Huan Zhang,JinYuan Zhang,HongWei Yang,Xu Wang,Jia Pan
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20056
  • 2021, 13 (2): 133–149 Abstract (88) HTML (7828) PDF (14350 KB) (243)
  • The sufficient bond between concrete and rock is an important prerequisite to ensure the effect of shotcrete support. However, in cold regions engineering protection system, the bond condition of rock and concrete surface is easily affected by freeze-thaw cycles, resulting in interface damage, debonding and even supporting failure. Understanding the micromechanisms of the damage and debonding of the rock-concrete interface is essential for improving the interface protection. Therefore, the micromorphology, micromechanical properties, and microdebonding evolution of the sandstone-concrete interface transition zone (ITZ) under varying freeze-thaw cycles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20) were studied using scanning electron microscope, stereoscopic microscope, and nano-indentation. Furthermore, the distribution range and evolution process of ITZ affected by freeze-thaw cycles were defined. Major findings of this study are as follows: (1) The microdamage evolution law of the ITZ under increasing freeze-thaw cycles is clarified, and the relationship between the number of cracks in the ITZ and freeze-thaw cycles is established; (2) As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases, the ITZ's micromechanical strength decreases, and its development width tends to increase; (3) The damage and debonding evolution mechanisms of sandstone-concrete ITZ under freeze-thaw cycles is revealed, and its micromechanical evolution model induced by freeze-thaw cycles is proposed.

  • Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions
  • YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045
  • 2021, 13 (1): 1–17 Abstract (559) HTML (23852) PDF (4971 KB) (581)
  • A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.

  • Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg
  • Sakpere A.M.A.
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00350.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 350–359 Abstract (4487) HTML (30925) PDF (2153 KB) (475)
  • This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm × 22cm × 5cm) lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.

  • Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents
  • Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 382–388 Abstract (239) HTML (1719) PDF (670 KB) (465)
  • This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  • Research on pile performance and state-of-the-art practice in cold regions
  • JianKun Liu, TengFei Wang, Zhi Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00001
  • 2018, 10 (1): 1–11 Abstract (812) PDF (3430 KB) (410)
  • A pile foundation is commonly adopted in geotechnical engineering to support structures, and its application has been extended to cold-regions engineering. In past decades, a host of scholars investigated pile behaviors and proposed design guidelines for seasonally frozen ground or permafrost. This paper reviews the research with respect to pile performance and engineering practice in cold regions, organized as follows: (1) creep tests and bearing capacity, (2) frost-jacking hazards, (3) laterally loaded piles, (4) dynamic responses, (5) refreezing due to concrete-hydration heat, and (6) improved countermeasures and design methods. We first summarize previous research and recent progress; then, predict the development trend of pile foundations in cold regions and recommend further research.
  • Frost susceptibility of soils―A confusing concept that can misguide geotechnical design in cold regions
  • DaiChao Sheng
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20051
  • 2021, 13 (2): 87–94 Abstract (197) HTML (13271) PDF (3999 KB) (399)
  • Frost susceptibility is a concept widely used in cold region geotechnical design, to quantify the capacity of a soil in generating frost heave and frost damage. The laboratory test used to verify frost susceptibility of a soil is based on the measurement of frost heave generated in the soil under specific conditions. In reality this concept is, however, more related to the soil's potential to thaw weakening than to frost heave. Recent experimental studies show that frost non-susceptible soils like clean sand and clean gavel can also generate much ice segregation and frost heave if the conditions are favourable, hence challenging the usefulness and suitability of soil classification based on frost susceptibility. It is further shown that the concept is not suitable for design scenarios where frost heave itself is a serious hazard, such as in high-speed rail embankments.

  • Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal
  • Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00357
  • 2018, 10 (5): 357–368 Abstract (447) HTML (14866) PDF (4797 KB) (397)
  • The extensive debris that covers glaciers in the ablation zone of the Himalayan region plays an important part in regulating ablation rates and water availability for the downstream region. The melt rate of ice is determined by the amount of heat conducted through debris material lying over the ice. This study presents the vertical temperature gradients, thermal properties in terms of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and positive degree-day factors for the debris-covered portion of Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya using field-based measurements from three different seasons. Field measurements include debris temperatures at different debris thicknesses, air temperature, and ice melt during the monsoon (2013), winter (2013), and pre-monsoon (2014) seasons. We used a thermal equation to estimate thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and degree-day factors (DDF) were calculated from cumulative positive temperature and ice melt of the measurement period. Our analysis of debris temperature profiles at different depths of debris show the daily linear gradients of ?20.81 °C/m, 4.05 °C/m, and ?7.79 °C/m in the monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. The values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in the monsoon season were 10 times greater than in the winter season. The large difference in these values is attributed to surface temperature and moisture content within the debris. Similarly, we found higher values of DDFs at thinner debris for the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season although we observed less melting during the pre-monsoon season. This is attributed to higher cumulative temperature during the monsoon season than in the pre-monsoon season. Our study advances our understanding of heat conductivity through debris material in different seasons, which supports estimating ice melt and discharge from glacierized river basins with debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan region.

  • Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings
  • YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447
  • 2020, 12 (6): 447–460 Abstract (150) HTML (3293) PDF (6723 KB) (394)
  • Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.

  • Characteristics of permafrost degradation in Northeast China and its ecological effects: A review
  • ShanShan Chen,ShuYing Zang,Li Sun
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00001.
  • 2020, 12 (1): 1–11 Abstract (225) HTML (512) PDF (1207 KB) (389)
  • Latitudinal permafrost in Northern Northeast (NNE) China is located in the southern margin of the Eurasian continent, and is very sensitive to climatic and environmental change. Numerical simulations indicate that air temperature in the permafrost regions of Northeast China has been on the rise since the 1950s, and will keep rising in the 21st century, leading to extensive degradation of permafrost. Permafrost degradation in NNE China has its own characteristics, such as northward shifts in the shape of a "W" for the permafrost southern boundary (SLP), discontinuous permafrost degradation into island-like frozen soil, and gradually disappearing island permafrost. Permafrost degradation leads to deterioration of the ecological environment in cold regions. As a result, the belt of larch forests dominated by Larix gmelinii has shifted northwards and wetland areas with symbiotic relationships with permafrost have decreased significantly. With rapid retreat and thinning of permafrost and vegetation change, the CO2 and CH4 flux increases with mean air temperature from continuous to sporadic permafrost areas as a result of activity of methanogen enhancement, positively feeding back to climate warming. This paper reviews the features of permafrost degradation, the effects of permafrost degradation on wetland and forest ecosystem structure and function, and greenhouse gas emissions on latitudinal permafrost in NNE China. We also put forward critical questions about the aforementioned effects, including: (1) establish long-term permafrost observation systems to evaluate the distribution of permafrost and SLP change, in order to study the feedback of permafrost to climate change; (2) carry out research about the effects of permafrost degradation on the wetland ecosystem and the response of Xing'an larch to global change, and predict ecosystem dynamics in permafrost degradation based on long-term field observation; (3) focus intensively on the dynamics of greenhouse gas flux in permafrost degradation of Northeast China and the feedback of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change; (4) quantitative studies on the permafrost carbon feedback and vegetation carbon feedback due to permafrost change to climate multi-impact and estimate the balance of C in permafrost regions in the future.

  • Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
  • JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
  • 2017, 9 (3): 221–228 Abstract (295) PDF (4411 KB) (376)
  • The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
  • Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
  • XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
  • 2020, 12 (4): 234–241 Abstract (196) HTML (14574) PDF (1421 KB) (351)
  • Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

  • Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment
  • ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012.
  • 2020, 12 (1): 12–21 Abstract (153) HTML (7798) PDF (6304 KB) (345)
  • In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.

  • Thickness estimation of the Longbasaba Glacier: methods and application
  • GuangLi He,JunFeng Wei,Xin Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00477
  • 2020, 12 (6): 477–490 Abstract (120) HTML (8769) PDF (4573 KB) (325)
  • A total of 71,177 glaciers exist on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, according to the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0). Despite their large number, glacier ice thickness data are relatively scarce. This study utilizes digital elevation model data and ground-penetrating radar thickness measurements to estimate the distribution and variation of ice thickness of the Longbasaba Glacier using Glacier bed Topography (GlabTop), a full-width expansion model, and the Huss and Farinotti (HF) model. Results show that the average absolute deviations of GlabTop, the full-width expansion model, and the HF model are 9.8, 15.5, and 10.9 m, respectively, indicating that GlabTop performs the best in simulating glacier thickness distribution. During 1980-2015, the Longbasaba Glacier thinned by an average of 7.9±1.3 m or 0.23±0.04 m/a, and its ice volume shrunk by 0.28±0.04 km3 with an average reduction rate of 0.0081±0.0001 km3/a. In the investigation period, the area and volume of Longbasaba Lake expanded at rates of 0.12±0.01 km2/a and 0.0132±0.0018 km3/a, respectively. This proglacial lake could potentially extend up to 5,000 m from the lake dam.

  • Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth
  • Gideon O. Okunlola, Richard O. Akinwale, Adekunle A. Adelusi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205
  • 2016, 8 (3): 205–211 Abstract (202) PDF (325 KB) (315)
  • Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
  • Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055
  • 2018, 10 (1): 55–68 Abstract (164) PDF (4789 KB) (306)
  • Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
  • Cracking in an expansive soil under freeze–thaw cycles
  • Yang Lu, SiHong Liu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00392
  • 2017, 9 (4): 392–397 Abstract (248) PDF (2977 KB) (304)
  • Expansive soils located in cold regions can easily endure the action of frost heaving and cyclic freezing–thawing. Cracking can also occur in expansive clayey soils under freeze–thaw cycles, of which little attention has been paid on this issue. In this study, laboratory experiment and cracking analysis were performed on an expansive soil. Crack patterns were quantitatively analyzed using the fractal concept. The relationships among crack pattern, water loss, number of freeze–thaw cycles, and fractal dimension were discussed. It was found that crack patterns on the surface exhibit a hierarchical network structure that is fractal at a statistical level. Cracks induced by freeze–thaw cycles are shorter, more irregularly oriented, and slowly evolves from an irregularly rectilinear pattern towards a polygonal or quasi–hexagonal one; water loss, closely related to specimen thickness, plays a significant role in the process of soil cracking; crack development under freeze-thaw cycles are not only attributed to capillary effect, but also to expansion and absorption effects.
  • A nonlinear interface structural damage model between ice crystal and frozen clay soil
  • Sheng Shi,Feng Zhang,KangWei Tang,DeCheng Feng,XuFeng Lu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20050
  • 2021, 13 (2): 150–166 Abstract (112) HTML (13698) PDF (10701 KB) (301)
  • The shear properties of ice-frozen soil interface are important when studying the constitutive model of frozen soil and slope stability in cold regions. In this research, a series of cryogenic direct shear tests for ice-frozen clay soil interface were conducted. Based on experimental results, a nonlinear interface structural damage model is proposed to describe the shear properties of ice-frozen clay soil interface. Firstly, the cementation and friction structural properties of frozen soil materials were analyzed, and a structural parameter of the ice-frozen clay soil interface is proposed based on the cryogenic direct shear test results. Secondly, a structural coefficient ratio is proposed to describe the structural development degree of ice-frozen clay soil interface under load, which is able to normalize the shear stress of ice-frozen clay soil interface, and the normalized data can be described by the Duncan-Chang model. Finally, the tangent stiffness of ice-frozen clay soil interface is calculated, which can be applied to the mechanics analysis of frozen soil. Also, the shear stress of ice-frozen clay soil interface calculated by the proposed model is compared with test results.

  • A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria
  • Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao, Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Sefiu Adekilekun Saheed
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587
  • 2017, 9 (6): 587–598 Abstract (127) PDF (2416 KB) (297)
  • Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
  • Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
  • BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
  • 2019, 11 (5): 389–406 Abstract (205) HTML (822) PDF (4506 KB) (295)
  • Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

  • Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China
  • Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400
  • 2016, 8 (5): 400–410 Abstract (179) PDF (2545 KB) (294)
  • Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
  • Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method
  • TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071.
  • 2020, 12 (2): 71–82 Abstract (190) HTML (441) PDF (4245 KB) (294)
  • Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

  • Artificially frozen ground and related engineering technology in Japan
  • Satoshi Akagawa
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20046
  • 2021, 13 (2): 77–86 Abstract (228) HTML (32228) PDF (8720 KB) (294)
  • Since the 1970's, frozen ground has been developing near the Tokyo Bay area around liquefied natural gas (LNG) in-ground storage tanks. For disaster prevention purposes, the tanks are constructed below the ground surface. Since the temperature of the liquid stored in the tanks is -162 °C the soil surrounding the tanks freezes. Since this frozen ground has existed for almost half a century, we have permafrost near Tokyo. The development of artificial frozen ground may cause frost heaving, resulting in frost heave forces that may cause structural damage of adjacent LNG in-ground storage tanks. Therefore, the demand for frozen ground engineering increased and consequently we now have advanced technology in this area. Fortunately, we use this engineering technology and artificial ground freezing for civil engineering, especially in big and crowded cities like Tokyo. This paper provides a summary of the testing apparatus, test methods, and assessment methods for frost heaving.

  • Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region
  • Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183
  • 2017, 9 (3): 183–191 Abstract (226) PDF (757 KB) (289)
  • The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
  • Characteristics and changes of permafrost along the engineering corridor of National Highway 214 in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • Yu Sheng,JiChun Wu,Wei Cao,JianHong Fang,AnHua Xu,ErXing Peng
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00503
  • 2020, 12 (6): 503–516 Abstract (269) HTML (2116) PDF (7387 KB) (285)
  • Due to a series of linear projects built along National Highway 214, the second "Permafrost Engineering Corridor" on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has formed. In this paper, by overcoming the problems of data decentralization and standard inconsistency, permafrost characteristics and changes along the engineering corridor are systematically summarized based on the survey and monitoring data. The results show that: 1) Being controlled by elevation, the permafrost is distributed in flake discontinuity with mountains as the center along the line. The total length of the road section in permafrost regions is 365 km, of which the total length of the permafrost section of National Highway 214 is 216.7 km, and the total length of the permafrost section of Gong-Yu Expressway is 197.3 km. The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) is higher than -1.5 °C, and permafrost with MAGT lower than -1.5 °C is only distributed in the sections at Bayan Har Mountain and E'la Mountain. There are obvious differences in the distribution of ground ice in the different sections along the engineering corridor. The sections with high ice content are mainly located in Zuimatan, Duogerong Plain and the top of north and south slope of Bayan Har Mountain. The permafrost thickness is controlled by the ground temperature, and permafrost thickness increases with the decrease of the ground temperature, with the change rate of about 37 m/°C. 2) Local factors (topography, landform, vegetation and lithology) affect the degradation process of permafrost, and then affect the distribution, ground temperature, thickness and ice content of permafrost. Asphalt pavement has greatly changed the heat exchange balance of the original ground, resulting in serious degradation of the permafrost. Due to the influence of roadbed direction trend, the phenomenon of shady-sunny slope is very significant in most sections along the line. The warming range of permafrost under the roadbed is gradually smaller with the increase of depth, so the thawing settlement of the shallow section with high ice-content permafrost is more significant.

  • Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil
  • TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407
  • 2015, 7 (4): 407–413 Abstract (145) PDF (4001 KB) (283)
  • This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
  • Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region
  • Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00404
  • 2018, 10 (5): 404–412 Abstract (141) HTML (601) PDF (4973 KB) (280)
  • For estimating the altitude-distribution pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands and analyzing the possible mechanism for this distribution, a detailed study was performed through a series of field vegetation surveys and soil samplings from 90 vegetation plots and 45 soil profiles at 9 sites of the Hexi Corridor region, Northwestern China. Aboveground, belowground, and litter-fall biomass-carbon stocks ranged from 43 to 109, 23 to 64, and 5 to 20 g/m2, with mean values of 80.82, 44.91, and 12.15 g/m2, respectively. Soil-carbon stocks varied between 2.88 and 3.98 kg/m2, with a mean value of 3.43 kg/m2 in the 0–100-cm soil layer. Both biomass- and soil-carbon stocks had an increasing tendency corresponding to the altitudinal gradient. A significantly negative correlation was found between soil-carbon stock and mean annual temperature, with further better correlations between soil- and biomass-carbon stocks, and mean annual precipitation. Furthermore, soil carbon was found to be positively correlated with soil-silt and -clay content, and negatively correlated with soil bulk density and the volume percent of gravel. It can be concluded that variations in soil texture and climate condition were the key factors influencing the altitudinal pattern of carbon stocks in this desert-grassland ecosystem. Thus, by using the linear-regression functions between altitude and carbon stocks, approximately 4.18 Tg carbon were predicted from the 1,260 km2 of desert grasslands in the study area.

  • An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China
  • TangTang Zhang,Mekonnen Gebremichael,Akash Koppa,XianHong Meng,Qun Du,Jun Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00461.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 461–469 Abstract (218) HTML (1698) PDF (2806 KB) (280)
  • In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.

  • Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau
  • Xia Zhao,JunFeng Wang,Yun Wang,Xiang Lu,ShaoFang Liu,YuBao Zhang,ZhiHong Guo,ZhongKui Xie,RuoYu Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00407.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 407–418 Abstract (197) HTML (1876) PDF (4670 KB) (277)
  • An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.

  • Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
  • Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
  • 2018, 10 (4): 293–304 Abstract (176) HTML (26) PDF (1767 KB) (276)
  • Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

  • Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
  • ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
  • 2018, 10 (2): 114–125 Abstract (185) PDF (2925 KB) (270)
  • Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
  • Numerical simulation of artificial ground freezing in a fluid-saturated rock mass with account for filtration and mechanical processes
  • Ivan A. Panteleev, Anastasiia A. Kostina, Oleg A. Plekhov, Lev Yu. Levin
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00363
  • 2017, 9 (4): 363–377 Abstract (165) PDF (1995 KB) (270)
  • This study is devoted to the numerical simulation of the artificial ground freezing process in a fluid-saturated rock mass of the potassium salt deposit. A coupled model of nonstationary thermal conductivity, filtration and thermo-poroelasticity, which takes into account dependence of the physical properties on temperature and pressure, is proposed on the basis of the accepted hypotheses. The considered area is a cylinder with a depth of 256 meters and diameter of 26.5 meters and includes 13 layers with different thermophysical and filtration properties. Numerical simulation was carried out by the finite-element method. It has been shown that substantial ice wall formation occurs non-uniformly along the layers. This can be connected with geometry of the freezing wells and with difference in physical properties. The average width of the ice wall in each layer was calculated. It was demonstrated that two toroidal convective cells induced by thermogravitational convection were created from the very beginning of the freezing process. The effect of the constant seepage flow on the ice wall formation was investigated. It was shown that the presence of the slow flow lead to the delay in ice wall closure. In case of the flow with a velocity of more than 30 mm per day, closure of the ice wall was not observed at all in the foreseeable time.
  • An improvement of soil temperature simulations on the Tibetan Plateau
  • SiQiong Luo, BoLi Chen, ShiHua Lyu, XueWei Fang, JingYuan Wang, XianHong Meng, LunYu Shang, ShaoYing Wang, Di Ma
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00080
  • 2018, 10 (1): 80–94 Abstract (153) PDF (6264 KB) (269)
  • The simulation of soil temperature on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a dominant role in the performance of both global climate and numerical weather forecast models. To improve the simulation of soil temperature on the TP, the Johansen soil thermal conductivity parameterization scheme was introduced into Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5) and Regional Climatic Model 4 (RegCM4). The improved CLM3.5 and RegCM4-CLM were utilized to conduct offline and regional simulation experiments on the TP. Comparison of the new and old schemes revealed that CLM3.5 provides high thermal conductivity parameters of mineral soil solid on the TP. The Johansen scheme is more practical for the TP than the soil thermal conductivity parameterization in CLM3.5. The simulation of soil temperature and liquid water content was improved in offline experiment. The improved parameterization scheme can also reduce the simulation error of soil temperature in winter throughout the entire TP.
  • Characteristics of climate and melt runoff in the Koxkar Glacier River Basin, south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China
  • Min Xu,HaiDong Han,ShiChang Kang,Hua Tao
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00435.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 435–447 Abstract (137) HTML (1873) PDF (5258 KB) (259)
  • Hydrology of the high glacierized region in the Tianshan Mountains is an important water resource for arid and semiarid areas of China, even Central Asia. The hydrological process is complex to understand, due to the high variability in climate and the lack of hydrometeorological data. Based on field observations, the present study analyzes the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Koxkar Glacier River Basin during 2008-2011; and the factors influencing climate impact on glacier hydrology are discussed. The results show that precipitation at the terminus of the glacier was 426.2 mm, 471.8 mm, 624.9 mm, and 532 mm in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Discharge increases starting in May, reaches its highest value in July and August, and then starts to decrease. The mean annual discharge was 118.23×106 m3 during the four years observed, with 87.0% occurring in the ablation season (May-September). During the study period, the runoff in August accounted for 29% of total streamflow, followed by July (22%) and June (14%). The runoff exhibited obviously high interannual variability from April to September, induced by drastic changes in climate factors. Discharge autocorrelations are very high for all the years. The climate factors show different influences on discharge. The highest correlation R between daily temperature and discharge was for a time lag of 2-3 days on the Koxkar Glacier (0.66-0.76). The daily depth of runoff to daily temperature and daily water vapor pressure had an R 2 value of 0.56 and 0.69, respectively, which could be described by an exponential function. A closer relationship is found between runoff and either temperature or water vapor pressure on a monthly scale; the R 2 values are 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. The study helps us to understand the mechanisms of the hydrological-meteorological system of typical regional glaciers and to provide a reference for glacier-runoff simulations and water-resource management.

  • Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China
  • JingHu Pan, YanXing Hu
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00163
  • 2016, 8 (2): 163–176 Abstract (155) PDF (697 KB) (258)
  • The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization,urbanization,informatization and agricultural modernization(so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China,and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China.This paper evaluated the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units,and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011.The efficiency evaluation index system was established.The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001-2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis(DEA) model.Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefecture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA).Finally,the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression(GWR) model.Results indicate that the comprehensive,coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns.Overall,the efficiency is relatively low,and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies.The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001-2011,with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas.The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.
  • Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress
  • Ezekiel Dare Olowolaju, Adekunle Ajayi Adelusi
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00120
  • 2017, 9 (2): 120–126 Abstract (174) PDF (2148 KB) (255)
  • This study aimed at investigating the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress. The study was carried out under a screen-house to minimize extraneous factors such as pests and rodents using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Seeds of cowpea, maize and tomato were collected from the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. These seeds were planted at a depth of about 3 mm below the soil. The seeds were sown at the rate of six seeds per pot in the monoculture, while in the pots designed for the mixed culture of maize and cowpea, maize and tomato, cowpea and tomato, three seeds of each plant were sown. Two seeds of each plant were sown in the pots with the three crops. The treatments were then supplied with 500 mL of tap water in the morning and in the evening respectively until the seedlings become fully established. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically with three replicates. Plant growth indices were determined according to Hunts (1978) using leaf area and dry matter data collected at four and six weeks after planting. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analytical software SAS version 9.2. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigments accumulation (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) in maize (15.98, 23.92 and 44.72 μM), Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tomato plants (12.48 and 1,178.7 μM) in the sole stands were more than the mixed culture of maize with cowpea and tomato (7.195, 14.74 and 0.00 μM). Also, total Chlorophyll in maize (1,127.8 μM), Chlorophyll a and total Chlorophyll in tomato (3.95 and 1,317.5 μM) in the mixed culture were more than in the sole culture of maize (1,030.9 μM) and tomato plants (-9.40 and 546.3 μM). The different photosynthetic pigments accumulated in cowpea were greatly enhanced in the mixed culture than in the sole culture. All the photosynthetic pigments of maize, cowpea and tomato in all the treatments analysed in this study were significantly different at P>0.05. Plant growth indices such as net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate and tissue water contents of these plants had higher value in the intercropped than the check crop (sole). These plant growth indices were significantly different to one another at P>0.05. This study concluded that competition for shared resources in the mixed culture of tomato, maize and cowpea enhanced growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments.
  • Processes of runoff in seasonally-frozen ground about a forested catchment of semiarid mountains
  • PengFei Lin,ZhiBin He,Jun Du,LongFei Chen,Xi Zhu,QuanYan Tian
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00272.
  • 2020, 12 (5): 272–283 Abstract (115) HTML (13) PDF (5854 KB) (255)
  • Climate warming increases the variability in runoff of semiarid mountains where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed. However, what is not well understood are the processes of runoff, hydrological drivers, and freeze-thaw cycles in seasonally-frozen ground in semiarid mountains. To understand how freeze-thaw cycles affect runoff processes in seasonally-frozen ground, we monitored hydrological processes in a typical headwater catchment with seasonally-frozen ground in Qilian Mountain, China, from 2002 to 2017. We analyzed the responses of runoff to temperature, precipitation, and seasonally-frozen ground to quantify process characteristics and driving factors. The results show that annual runoff was 88.5 mm accounting for 25.6% of rainfall, mainly concentrated in May to October, with baseflow of 36.44 mm. Peak runoff occurred in June, August, and September, i.e., accounting for spring and summer floods. Runoff during the spring flood was produced by a mix of rainfall, melting snow, and melting seasonally-frozen ground, and had a significant correlation with air temperature. Runoff was mainly due to precipitation accumulation during the summer flood. Air temperature, average soil temperature at 0-50 cm depth, and frozen soil depth variable explained 59.60% of the variation of runoff in the thawing period, while precipitation variable explained 21.9%. Thawing-period runoff and soil temperature had a >0.6 correlation coefficient (P <0.05). In the rainfall-period, runoff was also affected by temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation, which explained 33.6%, 34.1% and 18.1%, respectively. Our results show that increasing temperature and precipitation will have an irreversible impact on the hydrological regime in mountainous basins where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed.

  • Evaluating effects of Dielectric Models on the surface soil moisture retrieval in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • Rong Liu,Xin Wang,ZuoLiang Wang,Jun Wen
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20067
  • 2021, 13 (1): 62–76 Abstract (188) HTML (3505) PDF (7208 KB) (251)
  • Based on the measurement of L-band ground-based microwave radiometer (ELBARA-III type) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the τ-ω radiative transfer model, this research evaluated the effects of four soil dielectric models, i.e., Wang-Schmugge, Mironov, Dobson, and Four-phase, on the L-band microwave brightness temperature simulation and soil moisture retrieval. The results show that with the same vegetation and roughness parameterization scheme, the four soil dielectric models display obvious differences in microwave brightness temperature simulation. When the soil moisture is less than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature in Wang-Schmugge model is significantly different from that of the other three models, with maximum differences of horizontal polarization and vertical polarization reaching 8.0 K and 4.4 K, respectively; when the soil moisture is greater than 0.23 m3/m3, the simulated microwave brightness temperature of Four-phase significantly exceeds that of the other three models; when the soil moisture is saturated, maximum differences in simulated microwave brightness temperature with horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are 6.1 K and 4.8 K respectively, and the four soil dielectric models are more variable in the microwave brightness temperature simulation with horizontal polarization than that with vertical polarization. As for the soil moisture retrieval based on the four dielectric models, the comparison study shows that, under the condition of horizontal polarization, Wang-Schmugge model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture underestimating the observed soil moisture more effectively than other parameterization schemes, while under the condition of vertical polarization, the Mironov model can reduce the degree of retrieved soil moisture overestimating the observed soil moisture. Finally, based on the Wang-Schmugge model and FengYun-3C observation data, the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study area is retrieved.

  • Relationship between ponding and topographic factors along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline in permafrost regions
  • MingTang Chai,YanHu Mu,GuoYu Li,Wei Ma,Fei Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00419.
  • 2019, 11 (6): 419–427 Abstract (211) HTML (587) PDF (4231 KB) (249)
  • The original landform along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP, line 2) was disturbed during installation of pavement for the pipeline. Forest and vegetation coverage is dense, and runoff develops along the pipe. Since the operation of the CRCOP (line 2) began in 2018, ponding has appeared on both sides of the pipeline. If there is no drainage, ponding can hardly dissipate, due to the low permeability of the permafrost layer. With the supply of surface flow and the transportation of oil at positive temperatures, ponding promotes an increase in temperature and changes the boundary thermal conditions of the pipeline. Meanwhile, when the ponding freezes and thaws, frost heave threatens operational safety of the pipeline. Furthermore, the ponding can affect the thermal condition of line 1. In this paper, the distribution of ponding along the CRCOP was obtained by field investigation. The type and cause of ponding were summarized, and the catchment and stream order were extracted by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). According to the statistical results in attributes for topographic factors, it is known that ponding along the pipeline is relative to elevation, slope, aspect, and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Water easily accumulates at altitudes of 300-450 m, slopes within 3°-5°, aspect in the northeast or south, TWI within 13-16, flow direction in north-east-south, and flow length within 90-150 km. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the cause and characteristics of ponding along the pipeline.

  • Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)
  • CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159
  • 2018, 10 (2): 159–168 Abstract (191) PDF (1727 KB) (248)
  • Both yield and quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) are seriously affected by continuous cropping. We attempted to understand the effects of intercropping on the obstacles associated with continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). The changes of rhizosphere microbial biomass and diversity in interplanting and monoculturing systems were studied by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technique. The contents and composition of lily root exudates were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The intercropping results of Lanzhou lily showed: (1) There was no difference in the composition of the rhizosphere soil microbes at the phylum level, but the relative abundance of the microbes decreased; and the relative abundance of harmful fungi such as Fusarium sp. increased. The relative abundance of Pleosporales sp. and other beneficial bacteria were reduced. After OTU (operational taxonomic unit) clustering, there were some beneficial bacteria, such as Chaetomium sp., in the lily rhizosphere soil in the interplanting system that had not existed in the single-cropping system. We did not find harmful bacteria that had existed in the single-cropping systm in the rhizosphere soil of interplanting system. The above results indicated that the changes of relative abundance of soil fungi and bacteria in lily rhizosphere soil was not conducive to improving the ecological structure of rhizosphere soil microbes. At the same time, the microbial composition change is very complex—beneficial and yet inadequate at the same time. (2) Root exudates provide a matrix for the growth of microorganisms. Combined with the detection of root exudates, the decrease in the composition of the root exudates of the lily was probably the reason for the decrease of the relative abundance of microbes after intercropping. At the same time, the decrease of the relative content of phenolic compounds, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms, did not increase the relative content of rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Changes in amino acids and total sugars may be responsible for the growth of Fusarium sp.. The results showed that the intercropping pattern did not noticeably alleviate the obstacle to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily, and the change of microbial biomass and diversity was even unfavorable. However, the emergence of some beneficial bacteria, the disappearance of harmful fungi, and other changes with intercropping are in favor of alleviation of obstacles to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily.
  • Sandstone-concrete interface transition zone (ITZ) damage and debonding micromechanisms under freeze-thaw
  • YanJun Shen,Huan Zhang,JinYuan Zhang,HongWei Yang,Xu Wang,Jia Pan
  • DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20056
  • 2021, 13 (2): 133–149 Abstract (88) HTML (7828) PDF (14350 KB) (243)
  • The sufficient bond between concrete and rock is an important prerequisite to ensure the effect of shotcrete support. However, in cold regions engineering protection system, the bond condition of rock and concrete surface is easily affected by freeze-thaw cycles, resulting in interface damage, debonding and even supporting failure. Understanding the micromechanisms of the damage and debonding of the rock-concrete interface is essential for improving the interface protection. Therefore, the micromorphology, micromechanical properties, and microdebonding evolution of the sandstone-concrete interface transition zone (ITZ) under varying freeze-thaw cycles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20) were studied using scanning electron microscope, stereoscopic microscope, and nano-indentation. Furthermore, the distribution range and evolution process of ITZ affected by freeze-thaw cycles were defined. Major findings of this study are as follows: (1) The microdamage evolution law of the ITZ under increasing freeze-thaw cycles is clarified, and the relationship between the number of cracks in the ITZ and freeze-thaw cycles is established; (2) As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases, the ITZ's micromechanical strength decreases, and its development width tends to increase; (3) The damage and debonding evolution mechanisms of sandstone-concrete ITZ under freeze-thaw cycles is revealed, and its micromechanical evolution model induced by freeze-thaw cycles is proposed.