Select Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 389-406.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389. Abstract （394）   HTML （838）    PDF（pc） （4506KB）（2338）       Save Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.
 Select Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 382-388.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382. Abstract （437）   HTML （1741）    PDF（pc） （670KB）（1073）       Save This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.
 Select Constitutive models and salt migration mechanisms of saline frozen soil and the-state-of-the-practice countermeasures in cold regions YuanMing Lai,ZheMin You,Jing Zhang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (1): 1-17.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20045 Abstract （740）   HTML （23881）    PDF（pc） （4971KB）（805）       Save A series of saline soil-related problems, including salt expansion and collapse, frost heave and thaw settlement, threaten the safety of the road traffic and the built infrastructure in cold regions. This article presents a comprehensive review of the physical and mechanical properties, salt migration mechanisms of saline soil in cold environment, and the countermeasures in practice. It is organized as follows: (1) The basic physical characteristics; (2) The strength criteria and constitutive models; (3) Water and salt migration characteristics and mechanisms; and (4) Countermeasures of frost heave and salt expansion. The review provides a holistic perspective for recent progress in the strength characteristics, mechanisms of frost heave and salt expansion, engineering countermeasures of saline soil in cold regions. Future research is proposed on issues such as the effects of salt erosion on concrete and salt corrosion of metal under the joint action of evaporation and freeze-thaw cycles.
 Select Guest Editors Fujun Niu and Jiankun Liu for special Issue International Conference on Permafrost Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (2): 1-1.   Abstract （1418）   HTML （24140）    PDF（pc） （467KB）（739）       Save
 Select Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (3): 221-228.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221 Abstract （509）   HTML    PDF（pc） （4411KB）（683）       Save The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
 Select Frost susceptibility of soils―A confusing concept that can misguide geotechnical design in cold regions DaiChao Sheng Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (2): 87-94.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20051 Abstract （489）   HTML （13295）    PDF（pc） （3999KB）（673）       Save Frost susceptibility is a concept widely used in cold region geotechnical design, to quantify the capacity of a soil in generating frost heave and frost damage. The laboratory test used to verify frost susceptibility of a soil is based on the measurement of frost heave generated in the soil under specific conditions. In reality this concept is, however, more related to the soil's potential to thaw weakening than to frost heave. Recent experimental studies show that frost non-susceptible soils like clean sand and clean gavel can also generate much ice segregation and frost heave if the conditions are favourable, hence challenging the usefulness and suitability of soil classification based on frost susceptibility. It is further shown that the concept is not suitable for design scenarios where frost heave itself is a serious hazard, such as in high-speed rail embankments.
 Select Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (5): 357-368.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00357 Abstract （519）   HTML （14875）    PDF（pc） （4797KB）（662）       Save The extensive debris that covers glaciers in the ablation zone of the Himalayan region plays an important part in regulating ablation rates and water availability for the downstream region. The melt rate of ice is determined by the amount of heat conducted through debris material lying over the ice. This study presents the vertical temperature gradients, thermal properties in terms of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and positive degree-day factors for the debris-covered portion of Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya using field-based measurements from three different seasons. Field measurements include debris temperatures at different debris thicknesses, air temperature, and ice melt during the monsoon (2013), winter (2013), and pre-monsoon (2014) seasons. We used a thermal equation to estimate thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and degree-day factors (DDF) were calculated from cumulative positive temperature and ice melt of the measurement period. Our analysis of debris temperature profiles at different depths of debris show the daily linear gradients of ?20.81 °C/m, 4.05 °C/m, and ?7.79 °C/m in the monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. The values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in the monsoon season were 10 times greater than in the winter season. The large difference in these values is attributed to surface temperature and moisture content within the debris. Similarly, we found higher values of DDFs at thinner debris for the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season although we observed less melting during the pre-monsoon season. This is attributed to higher cumulative temperature during the monsoon season than in the pre-monsoon season. Our study advances our understanding of heat conductivity through debris material in different seasons, which supports estimating ice melt and discharge from glacierized river basins with debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan region.
 Select Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg Sakpere A.M.A. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 350-359.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00350. Abstract （4723）   HTML （30938）    PDF（pc） （2153KB）（594）       Save This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm $×$ 22cm $×$ 5cm) lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.
 Select Research on pile performance and state-of-the-art practice in cold regions JianKun Liu, TengFei Wang, Zhi Wen Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00001 Abstract （955）   HTML    PDF（pc） （3430KB）（545）       Save A pile foundation is commonly adopted in geotechnical engineering to support structures, and its application has been extended to cold-regions engineering. In past decades, a host of scholars investigated pile behaviors and proposed design guidelines for seasonally frozen ground or permafrost. This paper reviews the research with respect to pile performance and engineering practice in cold regions, organized as follows: (1) creep tests and bearing capacity, (2) frost-jacking hazards, (3) laterally loaded piles, (4) dynamic responses, (5) refreezing due to concrete-hydration heat, and (6) improved countermeasures and design methods. We first summarize previous research and recent progress; then, predict the development trend of pile foundations in cold regions and recommend further research.
 Select Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (4): 293-304.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293 Abstract （293）   HTML （37）    PDF（pc） （1767KB）（543）       Save Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.
 Select Summary of research on frost heave for subgrade in seasonal frozen ground Shuang Jia,BoWen Tai,ShouChen Qi,Lei Li,Tao Chen Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (3): 195-205.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20092. Abstract （271）   HTML （98）    PDF（pc） （1441KB）（533）       Save The building of railways on seasonally frozen ground is inevitable as China pursues economic development and the improvement of its citizens' living standards. However, railway construction in seasonally frozen soil areas is often faced with frost heave, leading to uneven subgrades which seriously threaten traffic safety. This article summarizes extant research results on frost heave mechanism, frost heave factors, and anti-frost measures of railway subgrades in seasonally frozen soil areas.
 Select Spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness on glaciers of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and surroundings YaJie Zheng,Yong Zhang,Ju Gu,Xin Wang,ZongLi Jiang,JunFeng Wei Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 447-460.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00447 Abstract （288）   HTML （3303）    PDF（pc） （6723KB）（524）       Save Debris-covered glaciers, characterized by the presence of supraglacial debris mantles in their ablation zones, are widespread in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and surroundings. For these glaciers, thin debris layers accelerate the melting of underlying ice compared to that of bare ice, while thick debris layers retard ice melting, called debris-cover effect. Knowledge about the thickness and thermal properties of debris cover on CPEC glaciers is still unclear, making it difficult to assess the regional debris-cover effect. In this study, thermal resistance of the debris layer estimated from remotely sensed data reveals that about 54.0% of CPEC glaciers are debris-covered glaciers, on which the total debris-covered area is about 5,072 km2, accounting for 14.0% of the total glacier area of the study region. We find that marked difference in the extent and thickness of debris cover is apparent from region to region, as well as the debris-cover effect. 53.3% of the total debris-covered area of the study region is concentrated in Karakoram, followed by Pamir with 30.2% of the total debris-covered area. As revealed by the thermal resistance, the debris thickness is thick in Hindu Kush on average, with the mean thermal resistance of 7.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W), followed by Karakoram, while the thickness in western Himalaya is thin with the mean value of 2.0×10-2 ((m2?K)/W). Our findings provide a basis for better assessments of changes in debris-covered glaciers and their associated hydrological impacts in the CPEC and surroundings.
 Select Progress, problems and prospects of palynology in reconstructing environmental change in inland arid areas of Asia YongTao Zhao,YunFa Miao,Yan Lei,XianYong Cao,MingXing Xiang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (4): 271-291.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20049. Abstract （383）   HTML （41）    PDF（pc） （5371KB）（474）       Save Studying the climatic and environmental changes on different time scales in inland arid regions of Asia can greatly improve our understanding of climatic influences for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the context of global change. Pollen, as a remnant of seed plants, is sensitive to environmental factors including precipitation, temperature and altitude, and is a classic proxy in environmental reconstruction. In the last two decades, great progress in the application of palynology to inland areas of Asia has highlighted the role of palynology in paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental research. The main progress is as follows. (1) On the tectonic time scale of the late Cenozoic, the palaeoclimatological sequence has been established on the basis of pollen percentage, concentration and taxon. Pollen data have revealed a continuous enhancement of drought in the inland arid region of Asia, in contrast to evidence acquired based on other proxies. (2) In the late Quaternary, an increase in herbaceous plants further supports the intensification of drought associated with global cooling. In more detail, the palynological record shows a glacial-interglacial pattern consistent with changes in global ice volume. (3) The Holocene pollen record has been established at a high resolution and across a wide range of inland areas. In general, it presents an arid grassland environment in the early Holocene, followed by the development of woody plants in the mid- to late-Holocene climate optimum. This pattern is related to moisture changes in areas dominated by the westerlies. There are also significant regional differences in the pattern and amplitude of vegetation response to the Holocene environment. (4) Modern pollen studies based on vegetation surveys, meteorological data and statistics show that topsoil palynology can better reflect regional vegetation types (e.g., grassland, meadow, desert). Drier climates yield higher pollen contents of drought-tolerant plants such as Chenopodioideae, Ephedra, and Nitriaria, while contents of Artemisia and Poaceae are greater under humid climates. Besides these achievements, problems remain in palynological research: for example, pollen extraction, identification, interpretation, and quantitative reconstruction. In the future, we encourage strengthened interdisciplinary cooperation to improve experimental methods and innovation. Firstly, we should strengthen palynological classification and improve the skill of identification; secondly, laboratory experiments are needed to better constrain pollen transport dynamics in water and air; thirdly, more rigorous mathematical principles will improve the reliability of reconstructions and deepen the knowledge of plant geography; and finally, new areas and methods in palynology should be explored, for example DNA, UV-B and isotopic analysis. It is expected that palynology will continue to develop, and we hope it will continue to play an important role in the study of past climatic and environmental changes.
 Select Comparative study of probable maximum precipitation and isohyetal maps for mountainous regions, Pakistan Muhammad Waseem Boota, Ghulam Nabi, Tanveer Abbas, HuiJun Jin, Ayesha Yousaf, Muhammad Azeem Boota Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (1): 55-68.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00055 Abstract （317）   HTML    PDF（pc） （4789KB）（470）       Save Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used by hydrologists for appraisal of probable maximum flood (PMF) used for soil and water conservation structures, and design of dam spillways. A number of methods such as empirical, statistical and dynamic are used to estimate PMP, the most favored being statistical and hydro-meteorological. In this paper, PMP estimation in mountainous regions of Pakistan is studied using statistical as well as physically based hydro-meteorological approaches. Daily precipitation, dew point, wind speed and temperature data is processed to estimate PMP for a one-day duration. Maximum precipitation for different return periods is estimated by using statistical approaches such as Gumble and Log-Pearson type-III (LP-III) distribution. Goodness of fit (GOF) test, chi-square test, correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were applied to Gumble and LP-III distributions. Results reveal that among statistical approaches, Gumble distribution performed the best result compared to LP-III distribution. Isohyetal maps of the study area at different return periods are produced by using the GIS tool, and PMP in mountainous regions varies from 150 to 320 mm at an average value of 230.83 mm. The ratio of PMP for one-day duration to highest observed rainfall (HOR) varied from 1.08 to 1.29 with an average value of 1.18. An appropriate frequency factor (Km) is very important which is a function of mean for observed precipitation and PMP for 1-day duration, and Km values varies from 2.54 to 4.68. The coefficient of variability (Cv) varies from minimum value of 28% to maximum value of 43.35%. It was concluded that the statistical approach gives higher results compared to moisture maximization (MM) approach. In the hydro-meteorological approach, moisture maximization (MM) and wind moisture maximization (WMM) techniques were applied and it was concluded that wind moisture maximization approach gives higher results of PMP as compared to moisture maximization approach as well as for Hershfield technique. Therefore, it is suggested that MM approach is the most favored in the study area for PMP estimation, which leads to acceptable results, compared to WMM and statistical approaches.
 Select Cracking in an expansive soil under freeze–thaw cycles Yang Lu, SiHong Liu Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (4): 392-397.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00392 Abstract （420）   HTML    PDF（pc） （2977KB）（461）       Save Expansive soils located in cold regions can easily endure the action of frost heaving and cyclic freezing–thawing. Cracking can also occur in expansive clayey soils under freeze–thaw cycles, of which little attention has been paid on this issue. In this study, laboratory experiment and cracking analysis were performed on an expansive soil. Crack patterns were quantitatively analyzed using the fractal concept. The relationships among crack pattern, water loss, number of freeze–thaw cycles, and fractal dimension were discussed. It was found that crack patterns on the surface exhibit a hierarchical network structure that is fractal at a statistical level. Cracks induced by freeze–thaw cycles are shorter, more irregularly oriented, and slowly evolves from an irregularly rectilinear pattern towards a polygonal or quasi–hexagonal one; water loss, closely related to specimen thickness, plays a significant role in the process of soil cracking; crack development under freeze-thaw cycles are not only attributed to capillary effect, but also to expansion and absorption effects.
 Select Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (1): 12-21.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012. Abstract （289）   HTML （7807）    PDF（pc） （6304KB）（456）       Save In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.
 Select Changes in the global cryosphere and their impacts: A review and new perspective ShiYin Liu,TongHua Wu,Xin Wang,XiaoDong Wu,XiaoJun Yao,Qiao Liu,Yong Zhang,JunFeng Wei,XiaoFan Zhu Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 343-354.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00343 Abstract （405）   HTML （37）    PDF（pc） （4554KB）（450）       Save As one of the five components of Earth's climatic system, the cryosphere has been undergoing rapid shrinking due to global warming. Studies on the formation, evolution, distribution and dynamics of cryospheric components and their interactions with the human system are of increasing importance to society. In recent decades, the mass loss of glaciers, including the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, has accelerated. The extent of sea ice and snow cover has been shrinking, and permafrost has been degrading. The main sustainable development goals in cryospheric regions have been impacted. The shrinking of the cryosphere results in sea-level rise, which is currently affecting, or is soon expected to affect, 17 coastal megacities and some small island countries. In East Asia, South Asia and North America, climate anomalies are closely related to the extent of Arctic sea ice and snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Increasing freshwater melting from the ice sheets and sea ice may be one reason for the slowdown in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. The foundations of ports and infrastructure in the circum-Arctic permafrost regions suffer from the consequences of permafrost degradation. In high plateaus and mountainous regions, the cryosphere's shrinking has led to fluctuations in river runoff, caused water shortages and increased flooding risks in certain areas. These changes in cryospheric components have shown significant heterogeneity at different temporal and spatial scales. Our results suggest that the quantitative evaluation of future changes in the cryosphere still needs to be improved by enhancing existing observations and model simulations. Theoretical and methodological innovations are required to strengthen social economies' resilience to the impact of cryospheric change.
 Select Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 502-515.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502 Abstract （334）   HTML （20）    PDF（pc） （784KB）（448）       Save Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.
 Select Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 234-241.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234 Abstract （320）   HTML （14587）    PDF（pc） （1421KB）（443）       Save Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.
 Select Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (2): 114-125.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114 Abstract （345）   HTML    PDF（pc） （2925KB）（440）       Save Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
 Select Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress Ezekiel Dare Olowolaju, Adekunle Ajayi Adelusi Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (2): 120-126.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00120 Abstract （363）   HTML    PDF（pc） （2148KB）（440）       Save This study aimed at investigating the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress. The study was carried out under a screen-house to minimize extraneous factors such as pests and rodents using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Seeds of cowpea, maize and tomato were collected from the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. These seeds were planted at a depth of about 3 mm below the soil. The seeds were sown at the rate of six seeds per pot in the monoculture, while in the pots designed for the mixed culture of maize and cowpea, maize and tomato, cowpea and tomato, three seeds of each plant were sown. Two seeds of each plant were sown in the pots with the three crops. The treatments were then supplied with 500 mL of tap water in the morning and in the evening respectively until the seedlings become fully established. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically with three replicates. Plant growth indices were determined according to Hunts (1978) using leaf area and dry matter data collected at four and six weeks after planting. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analytical software SAS version 9.2. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigments accumulation (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) in maize (15.98, 23.92 and 44.72 μM), Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tomato plants (12.48 and 1,178.7 μM) in the sole stands were more than the mixed culture of maize with cowpea and tomato (7.195, 14.74 and 0.00 μM). Also, total Chlorophyll in maize (1,127.8 μM), Chlorophyll a and total Chlorophyll in tomato (3.95 and 1,317.5 μM) in the mixed culture were more than in the sole culture of maize (1,030.9 μM) and tomato plants (-9.40 and 546.3 μM). The different photosynthetic pigments accumulated in cowpea were greatly enhanced in the mixed culture than in the sole culture. All the photosynthetic pigments of maize, cowpea and tomato in all the treatments analysed in this study were significantly different at P>0.05. Plant growth indices such as net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate and tissue water contents of these plants had higher value in the intercropped than the check crop (sole). These plant growth indices were significantly different to one another at P>0.05. This study concluded that competition for shared resources in the mixed culture of tomato, maize and cowpea enhanced growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments.
 Select Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (4): 407-413.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407 Abstract （295）   HTML    PDF（pc） （4001KB）（439）       Save This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
 Select Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth Gideon O. Okunlola, Richard O. Akinwale, Adekunle A. Adelusi Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (3): 205-211.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205 Abstract （367）   HTML    PDF（pc） （325KB）（432）       Save Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
 Select Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique: Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China Jan Felix Köbbing, Niels Thevs, Stefan Zerbe Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (5): 400-410.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00400 Abstract （269）   HTML    PDF（pc） （2545KB）（429）       Save Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16% and 8% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48% and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.
 Select Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (3): 183-191.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183 Abstract （354）   HTML    PDF（pc） （757KB）（427）       Save The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
 Select A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao, Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Sefiu Adekilekun Saheed Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (6): 587-598.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587 Abstract （214）   HTML    PDF（pc） （2416KB）（422）       Save Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
 Select Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (2): 159-168.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159 Abstract （356）   HTML    PDF（pc） （1727KB）（415）       Save Both yield and quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) are seriously affected by continuous cropping. We attempted to understand the effects of intercropping on the obstacles associated with continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). The changes of rhizosphere microbial biomass and diversity in interplanting and monoculturing systems were studied by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technique. The contents and composition of lily root exudates were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The intercropping results of Lanzhou lily showed: (1) There was no difference in the composition of the rhizosphere soil microbes at the phylum level, but the relative abundance of the microbes decreased; and the relative abundance of harmful fungi such as Fusarium sp. increased. The relative abundance of Pleosporales sp. and other beneficial bacteria were reduced. After OTU (operational taxonomic unit) clustering, there were some beneficial bacteria, such as Chaetomium sp., in the lily rhizosphere soil in the interplanting system that had not existed in the single-cropping system. We did not find harmful bacteria that had existed in the single-cropping systm in the rhizosphere soil of interplanting system. The above results indicated that the changes of relative abundance of soil fungi and bacteria in lily rhizosphere soil was not conducive to improving the ecological structure of rhizosphere soil microbes. At the same time, the microbial composition change is very complex—beneficial and yet inadequate at the same time. (2) Root exudates provide a matrix for the growth of microorganisms. Combined with the detection of root exudates, the decrease in the composition of the root exudates of the lily was probably the reason for the decrease of the relative abundance of microbes after intercropping. At the same time, the decrease of the relative content of phenolic compounds, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms, did not increase the relative content of rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Changes in amino acids and total sugars may be responsible for the growth of Fusarium sp.. The results showed that the intercropping pattern did not noticeably alleviate the obstacle to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily, and the change of microbial biomass and diversity was even unfavorable. However, the emergence of some beneficial bacteria, the disappearance of harmful fungi, and other changes with intercropping are in favor of alleviation of obstacles to continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily.
 Select Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau Xia Zhao,JunFeng Wang,Yun Wang,Xiang Lu,ShaoFang Liu,YuBao Zhang,ZhiHong Guo,ZhongKui Xie,RuoYu Wang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (6): 407-418.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00407. Abstract （276）   HTML （1888）    PDF（pc） （4670KB）（413）       Save An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.
 Select High-resolution mass spectrometric characterization of dissolved organic matter from warm and cold periods in the NEEM ice core JianZhong Xu, Amanda Grannas, CunDe Xiao, ZhiHeng Du, Amanda Willoughby, Patrick Hatcher, YanQing An Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (1): 38-46.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00038 Abstract （359）   HTML    PDF（pc） （3711KB）（407）       Save Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of ice cores but is currently poorly characterized. DOM from one Holocene sample (HS, aged at 1600-4500 B.P.) and one Last Glacial Maximum sample (LS, aged at 21000-25000 B.P.) from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core were analyzed by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). CHO compounds contributed 50% of the compounds identified in negative-ionization mode in these two samples, with significant contributions from organic N, S, and P compounds, likely suggesting that marine DOM was an important source in these samples. Overall, the chemical compositions are similar between these two samples, suggesting their consistent DOM sources. However, subtle differences in the DOM between these two samples are apparent and could indicate differences in source strength or chemistry occurring through both pre- and post-depositional processes. For example, higher relative amounts of condensed carbon compounds in the HS DOM (5%), compared to the LS DOM (2%), suggest potentially important contributions from terrestrial sources. Greater incorporation of P in the observed DOM in the LS DOM (22%), compared to the HS DOM (13%), indicate more active microbiological processes that likely contribute to phosphorus incorporation into the DOM pool. Although these two samples present only a preliminary analysis of DOM in glacial/interglacial periods, the data indicate a need to expand the analysis into a broader range of ice-core samples, geographical locations, and glacial/interglacial periods.
 Select Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (2): 71-82.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071. Abstract （297）   HTML （450）    PDF（pc） （4245KB）（404）       Save Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.
 Select Numerical simulations on cutting of frozen soil using HJC Model WenQiang Zhang,YongHong Niu Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (3): 134-143.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00134 Abstract （487）   HTML （20）    PDF（pc） （4939KB）（404）       Save Numerical simulation is known as an effective method for mechanical properties during frozen soil excavation. In order to reveal the development of cutting force, effective stress and cutting fragments in frozen silt during the cutting process, we introduce an explicit finite element program LS-DYNA to establish a two-dimensional numerical model of the frozen soil cut. We also use the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (HJC) damage constitutive model for simulating the variation of soil mechanical properties according to the strong dependence between the cutting tool and frozen silt during the process with different cutting depths, angles and velocities. Meanwhile, a series of experimental results are acquired of frozen silt cutting to prove the application of the HJC model during simulation of cutting force variations. The result shows that the cutting force and fragment size are strongly influenced by cutting depths and cutting velocities increased, and the maximum effective stress at points where the tool contacts frozen soil during the cutting process. In addition, when the cutting angle is 52°, the cutting force is the smallest, and the cutting angle is optimum. Thus, the prediction of frozen soil mechanical properties on the cutting process by this model is conducive to selecting machinery equipment in the field.
 Select Numerical simulation of artificial ground freezing in a fluid-saturated rock mass with account for filtration and mechanical processes Ivan A. Panteleev, Anastasiia A. Kostina, Oleg A. Plekhov, Lev Yu. Levin Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (4): 363-377.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00363 Abstract （288）   HTML    PDF（pc） （1995KB）（402）       Save This study is devoted to the numerical simulation of the artificial ground freezing process in a fluid-saturated rock mass of the potassium salt deposit. A coupled model of nonstationary thermal conductivity, filtration and thermo-poroelasticity, which takes into account dependence of the physical properties on temperature and pressure, is proposed on the basis of the accepted hypotheses. The considered area is a cylinder with a depth of 256 meters and diameter of 26.5 meters and includes 13 layers with different thermophysical and filtration properties. Numerical simulation was carried out by the finite-element method. It has been shown that substantial ice wall formation occurs non-uniformly along the layers. This can be connected with geometry of the freezing wells and with difference in physical properties. The average width of the ice wall in each layer was calculated. It was demonstrated that two toroidal convective cells induced by thermogravitational convection were created from the very beginning of the freezing process. The effect of the constant seepage flow on the ice wall formation was investigated. It was shown that the presence of the slow flow lead to the delay in ice wall closure. In case of the flow with a velocity of more than 30 mm per day, closure of the ice wall was not observed at all in the foreseeable time.
 Select The evolution and enlightenment of water resources accounting from accounts to balance sheet FuHui Jian, XiaoYu Song, LiLi Li, WenQi Gao Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (2): 156-162.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00156 Abstract （266）   HTML    PDF（pc） （1051KB）（401）       Save The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has proposed an important national strategic decision:to explore and establish the balance sheet of natural resources,to implement leaders' of-office auditing system about natural resources assets.Water is one of the most essential nature resources of human beings;water resources accounting,as an important water resources management tool,is an essential part of compiling the natural resources balance sheet.In this paper,we provide a summary of the historic evolution of water resources accounting and analyze its application in some typical countries.Although water resources accounting and water resources balance sheet reflect different implications and focus,both require water resources accounts as the basis in system establishment.
 Select Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (5): 404-412.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00404 Abstract （245）   HTML （606）    PDF（pc） （4973KB）（399）       Save For estimating the altitude-distribution pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands and analyzing the possible mechanism for this distribution, a detailed study was performed through a series of field vegetation surveys and soil samplings from 90 vegetation plots and 45 soil profiles at 9 sites of the Hexi Corridor region, Northwestern China. Aboveground, belowground, and litter-fall biomass-carbon stocks ranged from 43 to 109, 23 to 64, and 5 to 20 g/m2, with mean values of 80.82, 44.91, and 12.15 g/m2, respectively. Soil-carbon stocks varied between 2.88 and 3.98 kg/m2, with a mean value of 3.43 kg/m2 in the 0–100-cm soil layer. Both biomass- and soil-carbon stocks had an increasing tendency corresponding to the altitudinal gradient. A significantly negative correlation was found between soil-carbon stock and mean annual temperature, with further better correlations between soil- and biomass-carbon stocks, and mean annual precipitation. Furthermore, soil carbon was found to be positively correlated with soil-silt and -clay content, and negatively correlated with soil bulk density and the volume percent of gravel. It can be concluded that variations in soil texture and climate condition were the key factors influencing the altitudinal pattern of carbon stocks in this desert-grassland ecosystem. Thus, by using the linear-regression functions between altitude and carbon stocks, approximately 4.18 Tg carbon were predicted from the 1,260 km2 of desert grasslands in the study area.
 Select An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China TangTang Zhang,Mekonnen Gebremichael,Akash Koppa,XianHong Meng,Qun Du,Jun Wen Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (6): 461-469.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00461. Abstract （327）   HTML （1705）    PDF（pc） （2806KB）（399）       Save In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.
 Select Spatiotemporal change of carbon storage in the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi, based on the InVEST Model ShaoYang Liu, NingKe Hu, Jin Zhang, ZhiChao Lv Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (3): 240-250.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00240 Abstract （327）   HTML    PDF（pc） （3607KB）（393）       Save In recent years, land use and land cover have under gone tremendous change on the Loess Plateau, leading to temporal and spatial variation over many ecological factors, such as carbon storage. Based on four series of land-use data from remote-sensing imaging, spatiotemporal changes of land-use types and volume changes were analyzed. Combined with carbon-stock-assessment modules of the InVEST (integrated valuation ecosystem services and tradeoffs) model, the carbon-storage change was estimated and analyzed at the subcounty and subbasin scales. The results show that (1) cultivated land and grassland area decreased, while woodland and urban land area increased in northern Shaanxi; (2) the average carbon storage in Huangling County and the Beiluo River Basin is the largest, while that of Yuyang County and the Xinshui River Basin is the minimum, and that of Wuqi County showed the greatest growth; (3) carbon storage in the study area showed a definite decrease in 2000, but in general has increased from 1995 to 2010; (4) carbon-storage figures of subbasins and counties are all restricted by the natural status and land-use landscape of the whole study area. From the results, it can be seen that the effect of ecological policies is remarkable. This study has important implications for the rational planning of land use, adjustment of the ecosystem carbon cycle, and related policies.
 Select Effects of heavy metal (Pb) concentration on some growth parameters of plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment Ojo M. Oseni, Adekunle A. Adelusi, Esther O. Dada, Abdulfatai B. Rufai Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (1): 36-45.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00036 Abstract （287）   HTML    PDF（pc） （303KB）（390）       Save This study investigated morphological variation and biomass accumulation that occurred in Sida acuta and Chromolaena odorata plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment. The study was carried out in the screen house at the Biological Gardens of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The experiment was a factorial combination of one heavy metal (Pb) at five levels of concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg) in a completely randomized design, and were replicated three times for each of the two plants and two levels (0 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg) of organic fertilizer (OBD-Plus). Each pot was filled with 5 kg of air-dried and sieved soil and placed on a plastic tray for the collection of excess water. Two weeks after planting, seedlings of uniform height were transplanted from the nursery to experimental pots at the rate of one seedling per pot and grown for 10 weeks. The growth parameters of the plants were biomonitored for 7 weeks. After 10 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and dried to calculate the biomass accumulation. The two plant species performed better under fertilizer application than without it. For each of the plant species the growth parameters decreased as the levels of Pb concentration increased. Furthermore, the plants' biomass decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the levels of Pb concentration increased. The organic fertilizer helped to improve the plants' performance in lead-polluted soil.
 Select Processes of runoff in seasonally-frozen ground about a forested catchment of semiarid mountains PengFei Lin,ZhiBin He,Jun Du,LongFei Chen,Xi Zhu,QuanYan Tian Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (5): 272-283.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00272. Abstract （263）   HTML （23）    PDF（pc） （5854KB）（390）       Save Climate warming increases the variability in runoff of semiarid mountains where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed. However, what is not well understood are the processes of runoff, hydrological drivers, and freeze-thaw cycles in seasonally-frozen ground in semiarid mountains. To understand how freeze-thaw cycles affect runoff processes in seasonally-frozen ground, we monitored hydrological processes in a typical headwater catchment with seasonally-frozen ground in Qilian Mountain, China, from 2002 to 2017. We analyzed the responses of runoff to temperature, precipitation, and seasonally-frozen ground to quantify process characteristics and driving factors. The results show that annual runoff was 88.5 mm accounting for 25.6% of rainfall, mainly concentrated in May to October, with baseflow of 36.44 mm. Peak runoff occurred in June, August, and September, i.e., accounting for spring and summer floods. Runoff during the spring flood was produced by a mix of rainfall, melting snow, and melting seasonally-frozen ground, and had a significant correlation with air temperature. Runoff was mainly due to precipitation accumulation during the summer flood. Air temperature, average soil temperature at 0-50 cm depth, and frozen soil depth variable explained 59.60% of the variation of runoff in the thawing period, while precipitation variable explained 21.9%. Thawing-period runoff and soil temperature had a >0.6 correlation coefficient (P <0.05). In the rainfall-period, runoff was also affected by temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation, which explained 33.6%, 34.1% and 18.1%, respectively. Our results show that increasing temperature and precipitation will have an irreversible impact on the hydrological regime in mountainous basins where seasonally-frozen ground is widely distributed.
 Select An improvement of soil temperature simulations on the Tibetan Plateau SiQiong Luo, BoLi Chen, ShiHua Lyu, XueWei Fang, JingYuan Wang, XianHong Meng, LunYu Shang, ShaoYing Wang, Di Ma Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (1): 80-94.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00080 Abstract （298）   HTML    PDF（pc） （6264KB）（389）       Save The simulation of soil temperature on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a dominant role in the performance of both global climate and numerical weather forecast models. To improve the simulation of soil temperature on the TP, the Johansen soil thermal conductivity parameterization scheme was introduced into Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5) and Regional Climatic Model 4 (RegCM4). The improved CLM3.5 and RegCM4-CLM were utilized to conduct offline and regional simulation experiments on the TP. Comparison of the new and old schemes revealed that CLM3.5 provides high thermal conductivity parameters of mineral soil solid on the TP. The Johansen scheme is more practical for the TP than the soil thermal conductivity parameterization in CLM3.5. The simulation of soil temperature and liquid water content was improved in offline experiment. The improved parameterization scheme can also reduce the simulation error of soil temperature in winter throughout the entire TP.