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2020, 12 (2) Online: 30 April 2020 Previous issue
  • Thermal influence of ponding and buried warm-oil pipelines on permafrost: a case study of the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline
  • YanHu Mu,MingTang Chai,GuoYu Li,Wei Ma,Fei Wang,YaPeng Cao
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00059.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 59–70 Abstract ( 162) HTML ( 22) PDF (7664 KB) ( 162 )
  • Buried pipelines are widely used for transporting oil in remote cold regions. However, the warm oil can induce considerable thermal influence on the surrounding frozen soils and result in severe maintenance problems. This paper presents a case study of the thermal influence of ponding and buried warm-oil pipelines on permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in Northeast China. Since its operation in 2011, the operation of the warm-oil pipelines has led to rapid warming and thawing of the surrounding permafrost and development of sizable ponding along the pipeline route, which, in return, exacerbates the permafrost degradation. A field study was conducted along a 400-km long segment of the CRCOP in permafrost regions of Northeast China to collect the location and size information of ponding. A two-dimensional heat transfer model coupled with phase change was established to analyze the thermal influence of ponding and the operation of warm-oil pipelines on the surrounding permafrost. In-situ measured ground temperatures from a monitoring site were obtained to validate the numerical model. The simulation results show that ponding accelerates the development of the thaw bulb around the pipeline. The maximum thaw depth below the pipeline increases from 4 m for the case without ponding to 9 m for the case with ponding after 50 years of operation, and ponding directly above the pipe induces the maximum thaw depth. Engineering measures should be adopted to control the size or even eliminate surface water-rich ponding for the long-term performance of buried warm-oil pipelines.

  • Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method
  • TanGuang Gao,Jie Liu,TingJun Zhang,ShiChang Kang,ChuanKun Liu,ShuFa Wang,Mika Sillanpää,YuLan Zhang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00071.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 71–82 Abstract ( 176) HTML ( 441) PDF (4245 KB) ( 247 )
  • Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

  • Quantitative estimation of the influence factors on snow/ice albedo
  • ZhongMing Guo,NingLian Wang,BaoShou Shen,ZhuJun Gu,HongBo Wu,YuWei Wu,AnAn Chen,Xi Jiang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00083.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 83–94 Abstract ( 128) HTML ( 4) PDF (5631 KB) ( 137 )
  • Quantitative estimation of the influence of various factors, such as black carbon, snow grain, dust content, and water content on albedo is essential in obtaining an accurate albedo. In this paper, field measurement data, including snow grain size, density, liquid water content, and snow depth was obtained. Black carbon and dust samples were collected from the snow surface. A simultaneous observation using ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices) spectral data was employed in the Qiyi glacier located on Qilian Mountain. The measurements were compared with results obtained from the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. Additionally, a HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) air mass backward trajectory model was used to track the source of black carbon. The simulation was found to correlate well with observed data. Liquid water content was the most influential factor of albedo among the several influencing factors, followed by black carbon content and snow grain size. Finally, snow density change had the least toward albedo. HYSPLIT atmospheric trajectories model can only approximately show the source of black carbon and not clearly indicate the source region of black carbon.

  • Spatial and temporal transferability of Degree-Day Model and Simplified Energy Balance Model: a case study
  • HuiLin Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00095.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 95–103 Abstract ( 123) HTML ( 11) PDF (3067 KB) ( 144 )
  • Glacier mass balance, the difference between accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface, is the direct reflection of the local climate regime. Under global warming, the simulation of glacier mass balance at the regional scale has attracted increasing interests. This study selects Urumqi Glacier No. 1 as the testbed for examining the transferability in space and time of two commonly used glacier mass balance simulation models: i.e., the Degree-Day Model (DDM) and the simplified Energy Balance Model (sEBM). Four experiments were carried out for assessing both models' temporal and spatial transferability. The results show that the spatial transferability of both the DDM and sEBM is strong, whereas the temporal transferability of the DDM is relatively weak. For all four experiments, the overall simulation effect of the sEBM is better than that of the DDM. At the zone around Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA), the DDM performed better than the sEBM. Also, the accuracy of parameters, including the lapse rate of air temperature and vertical gradient of precipitation at the glacier surface, is of great significance for improving the spatial transferability of both models.

  • The heterogeneity of hydrometeorological changes during the period of 1961-2016 in the source region of the Yellow River, China
  • ZhiXiang Lu,Qi Feng,SongBing Zou,JiaLi Xie,ZhenLiang Yin,Fang Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00104.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 104–118 Abstract ( 99) HTML ( 12) PDF (5828 KB) ( 127 )
  • Runoff in the source region of a river makes up most of water resources in the whole basin in arid and semi-arid areas. It is very important for water resources management to timely master the latest dynamic changes of the runoff and quantitatively reveal its main driving factors. This paper aims to discover the variation heterogeneity of runoff and the impacts of climatic factors on this runoff in the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) in China from 1961 to 2016. We divided SRYR into four sub-regions, and analyzed changes of their contributions to total runoff in SRYR. We also revealed the impacts of precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration on runoff in each sub-region by constructing the regression relationships between them at multiple temporal scales. The changes of runoff in the four sub-regions and their contributions to the total runoff were not exactly consistent. The climatic variables’ changes also have heterogeneity, and runoff was mainly affected by precipitation compared to influences of temperature or potential evapotranspiration. Their impacts on runoff have spatiotemporal heterogeneity and can be reflected by very significant-linear regression equations. It provided a simple method to predict headwater runoff for better water management in the whole basin.

  • Distribution patterns of planted-shrubs of different restoration ages in artificial sand-fixing regions in the southeastern Tengger Desert
  • MeiLing Liu,Ning Chen,RuiQing Zhu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00119.
  • 2020, Vol.12 (2): 119–124 Abstract ( 561) HTML ( 9) PDF (2509 KB) ( 149 )
  • Plant density and spatial distribution in artificial vegetation is obviously initialized at the planting stage. Plant dynamics and spatial pattern may change over time as the result of interactions between individual plants and habitats, but whether it's applied for desert shrubs in artificial sand-fixing regions remains unknown. Here we examined changes in plant density and distribution patterns of three shrubs (Artemisia ordosica Krasch, Caragana korshinskii Kom, and Hedysarum scoparium Fisch.) in different regions, which have been restored for 27, 32 and 50 years (R27, R32, R50), respectively. The vegetation analysis shows that A. ordosica was the dominated species across the 3 restoration regions. The density of A. ordosica and H. scoparium show a significant increase from R27 to R32, then decreased in R50. The density of C. korshinskii was low in R32 and R50, lower in R27. The variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) was used to characterize spatial distribution patterns to ?t the observed densities of the three shrubs by frequency. A. ordosica and C. korshinskii both show significantly clumped distributions in three restoration regions. H. scoparium show a uniform distribution in R27 and R50, but a clumped distribution in R32. These results show that A. ordosica seems to be more adaptable in revegetated desert areas compared to C. korshinskii and H. scoparium. Pattern analysis suggests a successive replacement of C. korshinskii, which had low proportions of survived shrubs, by the dominant A. ordosica. This study contributes to the understanding of the distribution patterns of shrubs plants in revegetation projects in arid desert areas.