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2015, 7 (5) Online: 01 October 2015 Previous issue Next issue
  • Geotechnical methods of reinforcement of slopes near railroads
  • Vladimir D. Vereskun, Victor A. Yavna
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00469
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 469–474 Abstract ( 35) HTML PDF (1717 KB) ( 19 )
  • In order to generate well-based design decisions on reinforcement of landslide slopes and road embankment slopes, a system of combined geotechnical analysis of geological conditions is suggested which includes topographic and geophysical survey, and laboratory studies of soils using infra-red spectroscopy methods. Calculations of slopes' deflected modes are carried out with taking into account elastic and elasto-plastic behavior of soil, and the presence of supporting man-made constructions. Results of the application of the system suggested may be used as criteria for the classification of landslide slopes along permanent ways according to the degree of danger when used for transportation.
  • Freeze-thaw performance of chemically stabilized natural and recycled highway materials
  • Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00482
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 482–491 Abstract ( 34) HTML PDF (445 KB) ( 32 )
  • This article provides an overview of several previous studies that investigated the stiffness and strength performance of chemically stabilized roadway materials under winter conditions (freeze-thaw cycling). The objective of this research was to understand the behavior of different materials stabilized with different type of binders when they were subjected to freeze-thaw cycling. Nine different materials including natural soils (organic soil, clay, silt, sand, and road surface gravel), reclaimed pavement material, and recycled asphalt pavement stabilized with nine different binders (five different fly ashes, lime, cement, lime kiln dust, cement kiln dust) were discussed. This article investigated how the volume, resilient modulus and unconfined compressive strength of soils/materials stabilized with different binders change in response to freeze-thaw cycling. Overall, the review results indicate that the stiffness and strength of all stabilized materials decrease somewhat with freeze-thaw cycling. However, the reduced strength and stiffness of stabilized materials after freeze-thaw cycling was still higher than that of unstabilized-unfrozen original soils and materials. In addition, materials stabilized with cement kiln dust provided the best performance against freeze-thaw cycling.
  • Cyclic behavior of soils and numerical analyses in cold regions and seismic zones
  • Tadatsugu Tanaka
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00492
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 492–502 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (1361 KB) ( 17 )
  • The solutions of boundary value problems involving strain-softening material property contain serious difficulties from both modeling of strain-localization and a viewpoint of numerical procedure. Mesh size-dependent hardening modulus is considered to alleviate the mesh size-dependency of the solution. The elasto-plastic soil model with kinematic hardening model considering the cumulative deformation by cyclic loading is developed. In finite element analyses, the dynamic relaxation method combined with the generalized return-mapping algorithm is applied to the static drained and un-drained tri-axial tests and plane strain tests. The cyclic behavior of retaining wall problems by freeze and thaw in cold regions is also analyzed. Finally the dynamic progressive failure analysis of rockfill dam is carried out.
  • Experimental study of the effects of non-uniformly distributed fine soil on mechanical properties of Shenyang-Dandong Railway coarse-grained soil
  • QianMi Yu, JianKun Liu, JingYu Liu, DingJun Lv, TengFei Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00503
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 503–512 Abstract ( 27) HTML PDF (5305 KB) ( 16 )
  • The stress produced by repeated train loads decreases with increasing railway subgrade bed depth, and slightly weathered coarse particles of subgrade bed fillings can be broken at different levels under continuous load. Thus, the mass of fine soil, with a diameter of not more than 0.075 mm, is different at different depths. Fine soil is also sensitive to frost heave and thaw settlement. In order to study the effects of non-uniformly distributed fine soil on the mechanical properties of coarse-grained soil of the Shenyang-Dandong Railway, triaxial tests were conducted with three types of specimens, undergoing six freeze-thaw cycle numbers (0, 1, 3, 7, 9, 12) and three confining pressures (100, 200, 300 kPa). The freezing temperature is -5 ℃ and the thawing temperature is +15 ℃. The stress-strain behavior, static strength, resilient modulus, cohesive force and the angle of internal friction were measured for different tested specimens. As a result, the law of static strength and resilient modulus of different specimens following the increase of freeze-thaw cycles under three confining pressures is obtained. The changing law of cohesive force and friction angle of three specimens following the increase of freeze-thaw cycles is also calculated, and the different results of different specimens are also compared.
  • Study on the sunny-shady slope effect on the subgrade of a high-speed railway in a seasonal frozen region
  • QingZhi Wang, BoWen Tai, ZhenYa Liu, JianKun Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00513
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 513–519 Abstract ( 29) HTML PDF (524 KB) ( 14 )
  • The temperature distributions of different parts of a subgrade were analyzed based on the results of three years of monitoring data from the Harbin-Qiqihaer Passenger Dedicated Line, a high-speed railway, including the slope toes, shoulders, and natural ground. The temperature variation with time and the maximum frozen depths showed that an obvious sunny-shady effect exists in the railway subgrade, which spans a seasonal frozen region. Development of frost heave is affected by the asymmetric temperature distribution. The temperature field and the maximum frozen depths 50 years after the subgrade was built were simulated with a mathematical model of the unsteady phase transition of the geothermal field.
  • Investigation of monitoring system for high-speed railway subgrade frost heave
  • GuoTao Yang, ZaiTian Ke, DeGou Cai, HongYe Yan, JianPing Yao, Feng Chen
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00528
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 528–533 Abstract ( 37) HTML PDF (220 KB) ( 18 )
  • This paper presents methods for monitoring frost heave, device requirements, testing principals, and data analysis requirements, such as manual leveling observation, automatic monitoring (frost heave, frost depth, and moisture), track dynamic detection, and track status detection. We focused on the requirements of subgrade frost heave monitoring for high speed railways, and the relationship of different monitoring methods during different phases of the railway. The comprehensive monitoring system of high speed railway subgrade frost heave provided the technical support for dynamic design during construction and safe operation of the rail system.
  • Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method
  • Gennady M. Stoyanovich, Viktor V. Pupatenko, Yury A. Sukhobok
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00541
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 541–546 Abstract ( 34) HTML PDF (1910 KB) ( 14 )
  • The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We combined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.
  • Analysis of temperature field characteristics based on subgrade site measurements of Harbin-Qiqihar High-speed Railway in a deep seasonal frozen soil region
  • ZuRun Yue, BoWen Tai, TieCheng Sun
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00547
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 547–553 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (676 KB) ( 17 )
  • Recent years have seen a large number of high-speed railways built and will be built in seasonal frozen soil regions of China. Although high-speed railways are characterized by being fast, comfortable and safe, higher standards for deformation of the railways' frozen subgrade are required. Meanwhile, changes in subgrade soil temperatures are the main factors affecting the deformation of frozen subgrade. Therefore, this paper selected typical test subgrade sections of the Harbin-Qiqihar Line, a special line for passenger transport built in the deep seasonal frozen soil regions of China, to monitor field temperatures. Also, the temperature changing laws of railways' subgrade in this region was analyzed by using testing data, the aim of which is to provide a technical support for future design and construction of buildings and structures in a deep seasonal frozen soil region.
  • Effect of climate change and railway embankment on the degradation of underlain permafrost
  • ZhiWen Xiong, YongPeng Yang, ZhaoRong Zhu, XiangQing Zhao, HanCheng Cai
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00554
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 554–559 Abstract ( 36) HTML PDF (4406 KB) ( 16 )
  • Because of the global warming and the increasing human activity, the air temperature and the precipitation along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway increased gradually in recent years, which endanger the permafrost table, the embankment of the railway. The statistics of the air temperature, the precipitation and the geothermal temperature in recent 50 years in this dissertation come from the four weather station along the railway, that are Wudaoliang Station, Fenghuo Mountains Station, Tuotuo River Station and Ando Station. This dissertation analyzes the change of climate along the railway and then develops a research on the effect of the changing geothermal temperature on permafrost table and its countermeasures. The experiment result shows that the air temperature of the permafrost region rise steadily in about 50 years, especially in this century, the tendency of rising temperature is more obvious. The precipitation fluctuates but it is also rising rapidly, for the largest precipitation reached 492.6 mm. For 30 years now, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been in the megathermal period, which also affects the permafrost region along the railway. The condition of permafrost is degrading greatly.
  • A system for automated monitoring of embankment deformation along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway in permafrost regions
  • YongPeng Yang, YaoHui Qu, HanCheng Cai, Jia Cheng, CaiMei Tang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00560
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 560–567 Abstract ( 42) HTML PDF (484 KB) ( 21 )
  • At present, the monitoring of embankment deformation in permafrost regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway is mainly done manually. However, the harsh climate on the plateau affects the results greatly by lowering the observation frequency, so the manual monitoring can barely meet the observational demand. This research develops a system of automated monitoring of embankment deformation, and aims to address the problems caused by the plateau climate and the permafrost conditions in the region. The equipment consists of a monitoring module, a data collection module, a transmission module, and a data processing module. The field experiments during this program indicate that (1) the combined automated monitoring device overcame the problems associated with the complicated and tough plateau environment by means of wireless transmission and automatic analysis of the embankment settlement data; (2) the calibration of the combined settlement gauge at -20 ℃ was highly accurate, with an error rate always <0.5%; (3) the gauge calibration at high-temperature conditions was also highly accurate, with an error rate <0.5% even though the surface of the instrument reached more than 50 ℃; and (4) compared with the data manually taken, the data automatically acquired during field monitoring experiments demonstrated that the combined settlement gauge and the automated monitoring system could meet the requirements of the monitoring mission in permafrost regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.
  • Basic properties of saline soil in Da'an, western Jilin, China
  • Xin Zhou, Qing Wang, XueFei Zhang, TianWen Yu, XuDong Zhang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00568
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 568–572 Abstract ( 28) HTML PDF (213 KB) ( 22 )
  • This paper studied the basic properties of saline soil at different depths of a sampling site in Da'an, China, through field reconnaissance and laboratory analysis. A series of experiments which comprised the analyses of grain size distribution, mineral composition, soil physical properties, soluble salt concent, pH, organic content and cation exchange capacity were conducted. Through these experiments, the distribution rule of each property and their causes are discussed. These results could provide a fundamental base for the study of moisture migration.
  • Experimental study on grain size and soluble salt of saline soil in western Jilin Province, China
  • TianWen Yu, Qing Wang, XuDong Zhang, Xin Zhou, Gang Wang, CenCen Niu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00573
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 573–578 Abstract ( 26) HTML PDF (916 KB) ( 18 )
  • Western Jilin Province is a typical seasonal frost region, and is also one of the severest salinization areas of China. In this study, we aim to examine the saline soil in Da'an and Wukesong areas, western Jilin Province, and mainly analyze the granulometric composition and distribution of salt in soil profiles. Four sampling sites, two in Da'an and two in Wukesong respectively, are chosen for study. The granulometric composition, especially silt and clay content change in different sites and soil depths are analyzed. Analysis of total and components of soluble salt shows that the surface soil is weak carbonate saline, in which the main cation is Na+ and the main anion is HCO3-. The total amount of soluble salt presents a decreasing tendency with increasing depth. The comprehensive analysis of granulometric composition and soluble salt shows that the clay content and soluble salt content present similar variation tendency with an increase of depth.
  • A study of soil dispersivity in Qian'an, western Jilin Province of China
  • XuDong Zhang, Qing Wang, TianWen Yu, ShuoChao Bao, Gang Wang, Xin Zhou, CenCen Niu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00579
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 579–586 Abstract ( 34) HTML PDF (1584 KB) ( 23 )
  • Saline soil is vulnerable to water erosion because of its dispersivity. This characteristic has a great influence on dam and slope engineering. There is a large area of saline soil in western Jilin Province, the seasonal frost zone, and this soil is highly dispersive. We studied the properties of soil samples collected from vertical holes near Qian'an Dabusu Lake, assessing the particle size distribution and the chemical components. We also comprehensively identified the level of soil dispersivity by three standard methods, the pinhole test, the crumb test, and the double-hydrometer test. The soil composition and basic physicochemical properties are proved to be the most important factors which determine the dispersion degree of the saline soil. Our results showed that, within depth ranges from 0 to 1 m, silt particles highly influenced the soil dispersivity, and the total soluble salt accounted for ≥0.3%. At the first sampling point, in a tall soil column, the dispersion degree decreased with increasing depth, but this was not as obvious at the second sampling point, which was in a flat area. Nevertheless, the superficial soils of these two sampling sites were strongly dispersive, which must be taken into consideration for soil engineering in this region.
  • Determination of allowable subgrade frost heave with the pavement roughness index in numerical analysis
  • HongYan Ma, Feng Zhang, DeCheng Feng, Bo Lin
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00587
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 587–593 Abstract ( 35) HTML PDF (1092 KB) ( 19 )
  • Frost heave is an upward swelling of soil during cryogenic conditions in cold regions. It is caused by the accumulation of ice crystals in subgrade soil, which grow upwards when freezing temperatures penetrate into the subgrade. This study establishes the allowable soil subgrade frost heave based on the roughness standard of asphalt pavement in China, and aims to balance the pavement design and frost heave resistance of subgrades in cold regions. We formulated a mechanical model of pavement supported by the boundary conditions of differential frost heave, based on the elastic layered system theory. The differential soil subgrade frost heave was modeled as a sinusoidal function, and the allowable frost heave and the roughness index were modeled as the displacement boundaries for the top and bottom of the pavement structure. Then the allowable frost heave was back-calculated according to the roughness standard. Numerical results show that the allowable frost heave depends on the pavement structure, material properties, the highway grade, and other factors. In order to ensure that the actual soil subgrade frost heave is lower than the allowable frost heave, pavement structures and materials need to be selected and designed carefully. The numerical method proposed here can be applied to establish the frost heave resistance of subgrade when the pavement structure and materials are determined.
  • Structural analysis and design of frost resistance function for subgrade of high-speed railway ballasted track in cold regions
  • Qiang Luo, WenQiang Lv, QingZhi Ye, RuiGuo Zhang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00594
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 594–604 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (522 KB) ( 16 )
  • According to the technical characteristics of short fixed wheelbase of a high-speed carriage, a subgrade-track integrated space mechanical response analysis model is proposed for trains under the action of biaxial load after the comparison of the stress distribution characteristics of the ballast track subgrade bed structures for high-speed railway under the action of uniaxial load and biaxial load. The loading threshold value (high-cycle long-term dynamic strength) under the circumstance where the cumulative deformation of subgrade structure gradually develops and finally reaches the convergent state, and its relationship with the foundation coefficient K30 were deduced, based on the characteristics of cumulative deformation evolution obtained from the unit structure filling model test under the action of cyclic loading. In view of structure stability and frost resistance requirements of the railway subgrade in cold regions, technical conditions to maintain good service performance of subgrade structure of high-speed railway ballasted track are discussed and analyzed. Study results show that the additive effect manifests itself obviously for railway train bogies under the action of biaxial load than uniaxial load, which has a significant dynamic effect on the subgrade bed bottom and a slight effect on the surface layer. Thus, the adoption of a biaxial load model in the design of a high-speed railway subgrade accurately reflects the vehicle load. Pursuant to the structure design principle, the design method of the subgrade structure of high-speed railway ballasted track is proposed to meet the technical requirements such as structural strength, bearing stiffness and high-cyclic and long-term stability. Technical indicators are obtained for the variation of thickness of the surface layer of reinforced subgrade bed in the double-layer subgrade mode along with the change of K30 at the subgrade bed bottom. The double-layer structure mode of "closure on the upper layer and drainage on the lower layer" was proposed in order to meet the waterproofing and drainage requirements of the upper layer of the subgrade bed in cold regions. A dense-framework graded gravel filler with weak water permeability at a coefficient of 10-4 cm/s is used on the upper layer and the void-framework graded gravel filler at the water permeability coefficient of 10-2 cm/s is adopted on the lower layer.
  • Test on dynamic characteristics of subgrade of heavy-haul railway in cold regions
  • YingYing Zhao, XianZhang Ling, ZiYu Wang, XinYan Shao, LiHui Tian, Lin Geng
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00605
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 605–610 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (263 KB) ( 19 )
  • Dynamic characteristics of heavy-haul railway subgrade under vibratory loading in cold regions are investigated via low-temperature dynamic triaxial tests with multi-stage cyclic loading process. The relationship between dynamic shear stress and dynamic shear strain of frozen soil of subgrade under train loading and the influence of freezing temperatures on dynamic constitutive relation, dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio are observed in this study. Test results show that the dynamic constitutive relations of the frozen soils with different freezing temperatures comply with the hyperbolic model, in which model parameters a and b decrease with increasing freezing temperature. The dynamic shear modulus of the frozen soils decreases with increasing dynamic shear strains initially, followed by a relatively smooth attenuation tendency, whereas increases with decreasing freezing temperatures. The damping ratios decrease with decreasing freezing temperatures. Two linear functions are defined to express the linear relationships between dynamic shear modulus (damping ratio) and freezing temperature, respectively, in which corresponding linear coefficients are obtained through multiple regression analysis of test data.
  • Investigation of frost heave prevention using permeable subgrade structure
  • DeGou Cai, JianPing Yao, HongYe Yan, QianLi Zhang, AiJun Cheng, Jie Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00611
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 611–618 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (585 KB) ( 15 )
  • This paper set up a series of comprehensive targets based on the concept of 'anti-freeze filler', which include reasonable water retention rate, frost heave characteristics, and compaction characteristics of filling material. Then, a type of permeable graded gravel is proposed, suitable for high-speed railway subgrade. A series of in-door water retention, permeability, and frost heave tests were performed under different graded conditions. Water retention, permeability, and frost heave characteristic of different graded filling materials can be determined, in order to define the gradation range of permeable graded gravel. Relying on the frost-heave monitoring record of high speed railway in Northeast China, a series of experimental studies were performed, which included on-site filler production, compaction test, and the anti-frost effect test, in order to improve the production and compaction techniques of permeable graded gravel. From the research of this paper, the use of permeable graded gravel subgrade as the anti-frost structure for the high-speed railway subgrade in cold areas is feasible.
  • Use of fly ash with no water consumption for cold regions transportation infrastructure
  • Gokhan Baykal
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00619
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 619–625 Abstract ( 38) HTML PDF (9500 KB) ( 9 )
  • The construction period in cold regions is very short due to problems related to excavation and use of frozen soils in embankment construction, which leads to excessive deformations upon thawing. Also, handling of compaction water is critical due to freezing temperatures. Coalburning thermal power plants are very common in cold regions to supply electricity. The inorganic part of the pulverized coal after burning produces fly ash, which is available in large volumes. Due to excavation difficulties and the poor engineering behavior of frozen soils in cold regions, the utilization of fly ash when it is readily available must be promoted. Any construction technique which utilizes alternative materials like fly ash and minimizes water consumption has a potential to extend the short construction season and even allow service and maintenance during extreme weather conditions. This paper presents two potential techniques to solve the moisture affinity of silt-sized materials like fly ash. One technique involves in-plant production of fly ash pellets using cold-bonding pelletization to manufacture aggregates of up to 40,000-mm diameter from 15- to 60-mm-diameter fly ash grains. Large disc pelletizers have annual production capacities of up to one million ton at a reasonable cost. The product has adequate strength for embankment construction even when no water is used and no compaction is applied. The second technique is an in situ mixing technique which uses snow instead of compaction water for fly ash. The snow is the main element in this technique to compact the embankment. Water is needed for the hydration reactions to form cementitious minerals in fly ash. The slower the hydration reaction, the greater the crystal growth of cementitious minerals. In the proposed technique, in situ snow is mixed with fly ash and is compacted on-site. The temperature increase due to the hydration reaction of fly ash upon contact with snow crystals provides water for continued long-term hydration, which results in high strength, a high void ratio, light weight, and high thermal insulation capability. The presented techniques have the potential to extend the short construction season in cold regions and will provide fill material, decreasing the need for excavation. Both techniques are well documented under laboratory conditions, the research results have been published, and the techniques are ready for field trials to assess implementability.
  • Seismic behavior of tire waste-sand mixtures for transportation infrastructure in cold regions
  • Ayşe Edinçliler, Ozgur Yildiz
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00626
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 626–631 Abstract ( 36) HTML PDF (611 KB) ( 29 )
  • Tire wastes have many properties that are valuable from a geotechnical engineering perspective, such as low density, high strength, thermal insulation, energy absorption capacity, permeability, durability, compressibility, resilience, and high frictional strength. Thus, tire wastes offer good thermal characteristics in resisting frost penetration and have good drainage characteristics, being as permeable as coarse granular soil for fill materials. The many advantages of tire wastes make the material suitable for transportation infrastructure construction in cold regions. Also, tire wastes with high damping property make them a preferable admixture with sand for transportation infrastructures in seismic regions. This study aimed to determine the seismic performance of certain tire waste-sand mixtures in cold regions. A 70% sand-30% tire crumb mixture by weight (TC30) with a very high damping property was selected for analysis as an engineering material for transportation infrastructure. Small-scale shake-table tests were conducted on this material as well as on a sand-only sample under two different temperatures, 0 ℃ and 20 ℃, to simulate cold-region and moderate-temperature performance, respectively. The 1999 İzmit Earthquake Excitation (EW) (Mw = 7.4) was taken as the input motion. Test results showed that the tire waste-sand mixture at 0 ℃ showed better seismic performance than that at room temperature, suggesting that a tire waste-sand mixture in cold regions may reduce seismic hazards to infrastructure.
  • Frost heaving in ballast railway tracks
  • Satoshi Akagawa, Michiaki Hori
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00632
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 632–636 Abstract ( 59) HTML PDF (7446 KB) ( 6 )
  • Frost heaving is a well-known phenomenon in cold regions, which may occur in wet clayey grounds during winter. Railway track upheaval occurring in cold regions during the winter is generally understood as frost heaving in the subgrade layer. However, it has been confirmed that upheaval due to frost heaving sometimes occurs in the ballast layer. This understanding has been observed in active railways in northern Japan. The samples collected from ballast and subgrade layers have been examined for frost heave susceptibilities and confirmed that ballast layers which contain fines may heave.
  • Field application of freezing technology for social infrastructures
  • EunChul Shin, YuRa Gong, CheolGyu Jeong
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00637
  • 2015, Vol.7 (5): 637–644 Abstract ( 29) HTML PDF (1785 KB) ( 13 )
  • There are numerous methods to prevent seepage flow and ground improvement methodologies such as cement grouting, sheet piling, and the membrane method. In this paper, we present case histories of freezing technology applications in the construction of a deep tunnel sewerage system, undersea highway tunnel, and liquefied natural gas tank. Heaving pressure measurements for various soil types around a liquefied natural tank are compared with existing data. In this paper, we present temperature variations at the bottom and side of a liquefied natural gas tank. Our findings show that ground-freezing technology is very effective in controlling ground water infiltration into underground structures as well providing soil reinforcement in the soft ground.