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2015, 7 (4) Online: 01 August 2015 Previous issue Next issue
  • Characterization of frozen soil-cement mixture for berm construction in cold regions
  • HaoLin Yu, XinLei Na, ZhaoHui Joey Yang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00300
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 300–306 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (936 KB) ( 16 )
  • Lagoon berms in western Alaska are difficult to design and build due to limited resources, high cost of construction and materials, and warm permafrost conditions. This paper explores methods to treat locally available frozen materials and use them for berm construction. The goal is to find an optimized mix ratio for cement and additives that can be effective in increasing the strength and decreasing the thaw settlement of an ice-rich frozen silty soil. Soil of similar type and ice content to the permafrost found at a project site in Eek, Alaska is prepared in a cold room. The frozen soil is pulverized and cement, additives and fibers are added to the samples for enhancing shear strength and controlling thaw settlement. Thaw settlement and direct shear testsare performed to assess strength and settlement characteristics. This paper presents a sample preparation method, data from thaw settlement and direct shear tests, and analyses of the test results and preliminary conclusions.
  • Accounting for natural-climatic conditions in the design of roads in western Siberia
  • Vladimir N. Efimenko, Sergey V. Efimenko, Alexey V. Sukhorukov
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00307
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 307–315 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (529 KB) ( 24 )
  • The paper proposes a methodological scheme that thoroughly accounts for natural-climatic conditions which can impair the stability and longevity of transport facilities (roadways), to ensure the best possible quality of the initial road design. Factors determining the formation of water-heating mode subgrade soils are allocated, and an information database for mathematical modeling of geocomplexes is shown. Values of strength and deformability of clay soils are calculated within the limits of the defined, homogeneous road districts in Western Siberia to provide the required level of reliability of design solutions.
  • Experimental research on acoustic wave velocity of frozen soils during the uniaxial loading process
  • DongQing Li, Xing Huang, Feng Ming, Yu Zhang, Hui Bing
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00323
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 323–328 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (379 KB) ( 16 )
  • Ultrasonic P-wave tests of frozen silt and frozen sand were conducted during uniaxial loading by using an RSM®-SY5(T) nonmetal ultrasonic test meter to study the velocity characteristics of P-waves. The experimental results indicate that the P-wave velocity is affected by soil materials, temperature, and external loads, so the P-wave velocity is different in frozen silt and frozen sand, but all decrease with an increase of temperature and increase at first and then decrease with strain during the loading process. There is an exponential relationship between uniaxial compressive strength and P-wave velocity, and the correlation between them is very good. The characteristic parameters of acoustic waves can, to some extent, reflect the development of internal cracks in frozen soils during loading.
  • Strength and stiffness variation of frozen soilsaccording to confinement during freezing
  • SangYeob Kim, JongSub Lee
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00335
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 335–339 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (805 KB) ( 15 )
  • When water between soil particles is frozen, the strength and stiffness behavior of soils significantly change. Thus, numerous experimental studies in the laboratory have been carried out to characterize the strength and stiffness of frozen soils. The goals of this study are to evaluate the strength characteristics of frozen soils, which underwent confinement in freezing and shearing stages, and to estimate the stiffness variation by shear wave velocity during shear phase. The specimens are prepared in a brass cell by mixing sand and silt with 10% degree of saturation at a relative density of 60%. The applied normal stresses as confining stresses are 5, 10, 25 and 50 kPa. When the temperature of the specimens is lowered up to -5 ℃, direct shear tests are carried out. Furthermore, shear waves are continuously measured through bender elements during shearing stage for the investigation of stiffness change. Test results show that shear strength and stiffness are significantly affected by the confining stress in freezing and shearing phases. This study suggests that the strength and stiffness of frozen soils may be dependent on the confining stresses applied during freezing and shearing.
  • Numerical analysis of applying special pavements to solve the frost heave diseases of high-speed railway roadbedsin seasonally frozen ground regions
  • Chang Yuan, FuJun Niu, QiHao Yu, XinBin Wang, Lei Guo, YanHui You
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00340
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 340–347 Abstract ( 38) HTML PDF (1328 KB) ( 25 )
  • The Haerbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line is the first high-speed railway constructed in the seasonally frozen ground regions of northeastern China. Frost heave diseases occurred in the first winter of its operation (between October 2012 and January 2013), and frost heave was observed mainly in the roadbed fills that were considered not susceptible to frost heave. This paper proposes applying two special pavements—black pavement and insulation-black pavement—to improve the thermal regime of the roadbed. Three numerical models of the roadbed temperature field were built based on the field conditions of the Changchun section (D3K692+840 to D3K692+860).The results show that: (1) Compared with cement pavement, black pavement and insulation-black pavement could reduce the freezing index at the roadbed surface by 37% and 64%, respectively, which could influence the maximum frozen depth; (2) the maximum frozen depths under the black pavement and insulation-black pavement were respectively 1.3-1.4 m and 1 m. Compared with cement pavement, they could reduce the maximum frozen depth by 0.4m and 0.7-0.8m, respectively, which would reduce the permitted amount of frost heave by 4 mm and 7-8 mm, which would meet the deformation limitestablished by the Code for Design on Special Subgrade of Railway; (3) the freezing periods of the black pavement and the insulation-black pavement were, respectively, approximatelyfour months and two months. Compared with cement pavement, they could reduce the freezing period by approximately 19 days and 40 days, respectively, and delay the initial freezing time by 9 days and 18 days; and (4) compared with cement pavement, black pavement and black-insulation pavement could reduce the frozen areas of roadbeds in the cold season, which suggeststhat these two special pavements could provide better thermal stability for roadbeds.
  • Probabilistic analysis of embankment slope stability in frozen ground regions based on random finite element method
  • Xi Chen, JianKun Liu, Nan Xie, HuiJing Sun
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00354
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 354–364 Abstract ( 40) HTML PDF (2011 KB) ( 25 )
  • Prediction on the coupled thermal-hydraulic fields of embankment and cutting slopes is essential to the assessment on evolution of melting zone and natural permafrost table, which is usually a key factor for permafrost embankment designin frozen ground regions. The prediction may be further complicated due to the inherent uncertainties of materialproperties. Hence, stochastic analyses should be conducted. Firstly, Karhunen-Loeve expansion is applied to attain the random fields for hydraulic and thermal conductions. Next, the mixed-form modified Richards equation for mass transfer (i.e., mass equation) and the heat transport equation for heat transient flow in a variably saturated frozen soil are combined into one equation with temperature unknown. Furthermore, the finite element formulation for the coupled thermal-hydraulic fields is derived. Based on the random fields, the stochastic finite element analyses on stability of embankment are carried out. Numerical results show that stochastic analyses of embankment stability may provide a more rational picture for the distribution of factors of safety (FOS), which is definitely useful forembankment design in frozen ground regions.
  • Compressive strength and frost heave resistance of different types of semi-rigid base materials after freeze-thaw cycles
  • ZhenYa Liu, JingYu Liu, QingZhi Wang, JianKun Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00365
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 365–369 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (1482 KB) ( 26 )
  • Freeze-thaw damage is the most common disease of semi-rigid bases in cold regions, which may greatly affect the durability of roadways. In this study, the compressive strength and frost resistance of four different types of semi-rigid bases (lime-fly ash-stabilized sand, cement-stabilized sand, lime-fly ash-stabilized gravel, and cement-stabilized gravel) are assessed by varying the materials content. Based on freeze-thaw and compressive strength tests, this paper presents the performance of the different materials, each having different physical properties, and the optimal amounts of materials contents are proposed.
  • Monitoring and analysis of ground temperature and deformation within Qinghai-Tibet Highway subgradein permafrost region
  • YaHu Tian, YuPeng Shen, WenBing Yu, JianHong Fang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00370
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 370–375 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (5361 KB) ( 15 )
  • In order to study the stability of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway embankment at Chumaerhe in the permafrost region of northwest China, the ground temperature and deformation at different depths were monitored under the left and right shoulders of the embankment where thermosyphons were set up only on the left shoulder. Based on the monitored data, characteristics of ground temperature and deformation of the left and right shoulders are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the start time of freezing or thawing of the seasonal active layer was about one to two months later than that of the embankment body itself. The stability of each shoulder was mainly controlled by the settlement of different soil layers,whereasfrost heave of soil had scarcely any effect on the stability of the embankment. For the left shoulder, the settlement was mainly influenced by the seasonal active layer and then by the embankment body itself,due to freeze-thaw cycles which may change the soil properties; however, the permafrost layer remained fairly stable. For the right shoulder, creep of the warm permafrost layer was the main influence factor on its stability, followed by settlement of embankment body itself, and finally settlement of the seasonal active layer. Compared with the deformation of the left shoulder, the permafrost layer under the right shoulder was less stable, which indicates that the thermosyphons had a significantly positive effect on the stability of warm permafrost.
  • Refreezing of cast-in-place piles under various engineering conditions
  • Lei Guo, QiHao Yu, XiaoNing Li, XinBin Wang, YongYu Yue
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00376
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 376–383 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (375 KB) ( 19 )
  • In the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Power Transmission Line (QTPTL), cast-in-place piles (CIPPs) are widely applied in areas with unfavorable geological conditions. The thermal regime around piles in permafrost regions greatly affects the stability of the towers as well as the operation of the QTPTL. The casting of piles will markedly affect the thermal regime of the surrounding permafrost because of the casting temperature and the hydration heat of cement. Based on the typical geological and engineering conditions along the QTPTL, thermal disturbance of a CIPP to surrounding permafrost under different casting seasons, pile depths, and casting temperatures were simulated. The results show that the casting season (summer versus winter) can influence the refreezing process of CIPPs, within the first 6 m of pile depth. Sixty days after being cast, CIPPs greater than 6 m in depth can be frozen regardless of which season they were cast, and the foundation could be refrozen after a cold season. Comparing the refreezing characteristics of CIPPs cast in different seasons also showed that, without considering the ground surface conditions, warm seasons are more suitable for casting piles. With the increase of pile depth, the thermal effect of a CIPP on the surrounding soil mainly expands vertically, while the lateral heat disturbance changes little. Deeper, longer CIPPs have better stability. The casting temperature clearly affects the thermal disturbance, and the radius of the melting circle increases with rising casting temperature. The optimal casting temperature is between 2℃ and 9 ℃.
  • A method used to determine the upper thermal boundary of subgrade based on boundary layer theory
  • QingBo Bai, Xu Li, YaHu Tian
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00384
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 384–391 Abstract ( 28) HTML PDF (1065 KB) ( 15 )
  • In the numerical simulation of long-term subgrade temperature fields, the daily variation of soil temperature at a certain depth h is negligible. Such phenomenon is called the "boundary layer theory."Depth h is defined as the boundary layerthickness and the soil temperature at h is approximately equal to a temperature increment plus the average atmosphere temperature. In the past, the boundary layer thickness and temperature increment were usually extracted from monitored data in the field. In this paper, a method is proposed to determinate the boundary layer thickness and temperature increment. Based on the typical designs of highway or railway, the theoretical solution of boundary layer thickness is inferred and listed. Further, the empirical equation and design chart for determining the temperature increment are given in which the following factors are addressed, including solar radiation, equivalent thermal diffusivity and convective heat-transfer coefficient. Using these equations or design charts, the boundary layer thickness and temperature increment can be easily determined and used in the simulation of long-term subgrade temperature fields. Finally, an example is conducted and used to verify the method. The result shows that the proposed method for determining the upper thermal boundary of subgrade is accurate and practical.
  • Evaluation of creep models for frozen soils
  • XiaoLiang Yao, MengXin Liu, Fan Yu, JiLin Qi
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00392
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 392–398 Abstract ( 37) HTML PDF (345 KB) ( 19 )
  • To model the creep behavior of frozen soils, three creep stages have to be reasonably described (i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary stages). Based on a series of uniaxial creep test results, three creep models were evaluated. It was shown that hypoplastic creep model has high prediction accuracy for both creep strain and strain rate in a wide stress range. The elementary rheological creep model can only be used for creep strains at low stress levels, because of the restraints of its mathematical construction. For the soft soil creep model, the progressive change from the primary to secondary and tertiary stages cannot be captured at high stress levels. Therefore, the elementary rheological and soft soil creep models can only be used for low stress levels without a tertiary stage; while the hypoplastic creep model is applicable at high stress levels with the three creep stages.
  • Experimental investigations of freezing soils at ground conditions of Astana, Kazakhstan
  • Zhussupbekov Askar, Shakhmov Zhanbolat
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00399
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 399–406 Abstract ( 29) HTML PDF (1909 KB) ( 24 )
  • Kazakhstan regions is seasonal climatic with transient freezing of soil groundduring the winter. Roadbed integrity is important to resist the sustained load transmitted by traffic on the road surface. Freezing of soil ground could significantlyinfluence roadbed integrity in the seasonal freezing climate of Kazakhstan. The proper determination magnitude of frost heave and heaving pressure by the influence of freezing temperatures during the winter season are necessary for design and construction of highways. Thus, experimental tests were conducted on specimens obtained from Astana (Kazakhstan) to determine the freezing pressure and magnitude of frost heaving.
  • Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil
  • TianLiang Wang, ZuRun Yue, TieCheng Sun, JinChuang Hua
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00407
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 407–413 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (4001 KB) ( 20 )
  • This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows:(1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles,the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engineering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.
  • Vibration characteristics of frozen soil under moving track loads
  • AiPing Tang, AnPing Zhao, AiHua Wen
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00414
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 414–420 Abstract ( 22) HTML PDF (6801 KB) ( 15 )
  • Vibration due to moving traffic loads is an important factor which induces frozen soil damage; this paper analyzed these vibration characteristics of frozen soil foundation under track loads. Firstly, seismic observation array (SOA) technology was applied to monitor the three dimensional dynamic characteristics of frozen soil under movable track load in a permafrost region and seasonal frozen soil area. Secondly, a numerical simulation for the response of frozen soil under movable track load was performed based on finite element analysis (FEA). The results show that dynamic characteristics of frozen soil in perpendicular and parallel direction of the track are obviously different. In the direction perpendicular to the track, the vertical acceleration amplitude had an abrupt increase in the 9-10 m from the track line. In the direction parallel to the track, the acceleration in vertical and horizontal direction had a quick attenuation compared to the other direction. Lastly, various parameters were analyzed for the purpose of controlling the dynamic response of frozen soil and the vibration attenuation in frozen soil layer.
  • Finite element analysis on deformation of highembankment in heavy-haul railway subjected to freeze-thaw cycles
  • ChengYi Yu, Shuang Tian, Liang Tang, XianZhang Ling, GuoQing Zhou
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00421
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 421–429 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (1452 KB) ( 19 )
  • Finiteelement simulations are increasingly providing a versatile environment for this topic. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is conducted to predict the deformation of highembankment in Bazhun heavy-haul railway, China. A recently developed nonlinear softening-type constitutive model is utilized to model the behavior of subgrade filling materials subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. For the convenience of practical application, the dynamic loading induced by a vehicle is treated as a quasi-static axle load. The deformation of this embankmentwith different moisture content under freeze-thaw cycles is compared. The results show that when subjected to the first freeze-thaw cycle, the embankmentexperienced significant deformation variations. Maximum deformation was usually achieved after the embankment with optimum moisture content experienced six freeze-thaw cycles, however, the embankment with moisture content of 8.0% and 9.5% deforms continuously even after experiencing almost ten freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, this study provides a simple nonlinear finite element approach for calculating the deformation of the embankmentinchanging climate conditions.
  • Investigation of insulation layer dynamic characteristics for high-speed railway
  • HongYe Yan, GuoTang Zhao, DeGou Cai, QianLi Zhang, JianPing Yao, AiJun Cheng
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00430
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 430–437 Abstract ( 28) HTML PDF (1024 KB) ( 14 )
  • Dynamic performance of insulation is one of the key parameters during the insulation application for high-speed railway subgrade. This paper conducted laboratory and field tests for the materials and dynamic load,especially for thermal performance, elastic deformation, and accumulated deformation of insulation materials.Experiment results show that mechanical properties of insulation layer structure are stable, which satisfies the requirements of the high speed railway.
  • Permafrost and geotechnical investigations in Nalaikh Depression of Mongolia
  • Dashjamts Dalai, Batsaikhan Anand, Dugersuren Enkhbaatar
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00438
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 438–455 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (2904 KB) ( 20 )
  • Mongolia is a land-locked country in Central Asia, located between Russia and China. The country's high altitude results in cold, dry, and harsh climatic conditions with permafrost being widespread through the territory. Although the capital city Ulaanbaatar is situated in an area with discontinuous permafrost, the downtown section has recently seen a disappearance of permafrost due to an underground central heating system. During the last decade, expansion of the suburbs toward the Nalaikh Depression has resulted in construction of a new residential complex (Urgakh Naran), construction materials trading center, cement factory and agricultural products market. In the next 10 years, projects such as a university campus, logistics center, residential complex, railway and highway extensions connecting Russia and China have been planned. Engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations have been conducted for these construction projects. This paper presents some of the results determining the engineering geocryological conditions of Nalaikh district and offers foundation design options.
  • Processes and mechanisms of multi-collapse of loess roads in seasonally frozen ground regions: A review
  • GuoYu Li, Wei Ma, Fei Wang, YanHu Mu, YunCheng Mao, Xin Hou, Hui Bing
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00456
  • 2015, Vol.7 (4): 456–468 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (1732 KB) ( 22 )
  • Usually, the collapsible loess widely distributed across the world can serve as a type of foundation soil that meets its strength requirement after dense compaction and elimination of collapsibility. However, many problems such as cracks and differential settlement still occur in loess roads in the seasonally frozen ground regions after several years of operation. Many studies have demonstrated that these secondary or multiple collapses primarily result from the repeatedfreezing-thawing, wetting-drying, and salinization-desalinization cycles. Therefore, we conducted a research program to (1) monitor the in-situ ground temperatures and water content in certain loess roads to understand their changes, (2) study the effects of freezing-thawing, wetting-drying, and salinization-desalinization cycles on geotechnical properties and micro-fabrics of compacted loess in the laboratory, and (3) develop mitigative measures and examine their engineered effectiveness, i.e., their thermal insulating and water-proofing effects in field and laboratory tests. Our results and advances are reviewed and some further research needs are proposed. These findings more clearly explain the processes and mechanisms of secondary and multiple collapse of loess roads. We also offer references for furtherstudy of the weakening mechanisms of similar structural soils.