Please wait a minute...

Current issue

2017, 9 (2) Online: 01 April 2017 Previous issue Next issue
  • Light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan: concentrations and potential impact on albedo reduction
  • YuLan Zhang, ShiChang Kang, Min Xu, Michael Sprenger, TanGuang Gao, ZhiYuan Cong, ChaoLiu Li, JunMing Guo, ZhiQiang Xu, Yang Li, Gang Li, XiaoFei Li, YaJun Liu, HaiDong Han
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00097
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 97–111 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (1325 KB) ( 28 )
  • Light-absorbing impurities on glaciers are important factors that influence glacial surface albedo and accelerate glacier melt. In this study, the quantity of light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan, Central Asia, was measured. We found that the average concentrations of black carbon was 2,180 ng/g, with a range from 250 ng/g to more than 10,000 ng/g. The average concentrations of organic carbon and mineral dust were 1,738 ng/g and 194 μg/g, respectively. Based on simulations performed with the Snow Ice Aerosol Radiative model simulations, black carbon and dust are responsible for approximately 64% and 9%, respectively, of the albedo reduction, and are associated with instantaneous radiative forcing of 323.18 W/m2 (ranging from 142.16 to 619.25 W/m2) and 24.05 W/m2 (ranging from 0.15 to 69.77 W/m2), respectively. For different scenarios, the albedo and radiative forcing effect of black carbon is considerably greater than that of dust. The estimated radiative forcing at Keqikaer Glacier is higher than most similar values estimated by previous studies on the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps as a result of black carbon enrichment by melt scavenging. Light-absorbing impurities deposited on Keqikaer Glacier appear to mainly originate from central Asia, Siberia, western China (including the Taklimakan Desert) and parts of South Asia in summer, and from the Middle East and Central Asia in winter. A footprint analysis indicates that a large fraction (>60%) of the black carbon contributions on Keqikaer Glacier comes from anthropogenic sources. These results provide a scientific basis for regional mitigation efforts to reduce black carbon.
  • Photosynthetic pigments accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress
  • Ezekiel Dare Olowolaju, Adekunle Ajayi Adelusi
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00120
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 120–126 Abstract ( 36) HTML PDF (2147 KB) ( 29 )
  • This study aimed at investigating the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and some growth indices of cowpea, maize and tomato in response to interspecific and intraspecific competition stress. The study was carried out under a screen-house to minimize extraneous factors such as pests and rodents using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Seeds of cowpea, maize and tomato were collected from the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. These seeds were planted at a depth of about 3 mm below the soil. The seeds were sown at the rate of six seeds per pot in the monoculture, while in the pots designed for the mixed culture of maize and cowpea, maize and tomato, cowpea and tomato, three seeds of each plant were sown. Two seeds of each plant were sown in the pots with the three crops. The treatments were then supplied with 500 mL of tap water in the morning and in the evening respectively until the seedlings become fully established. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically with three replicates. Plant growth indices were determined according to Hunts (1978) using leaf area and dry matter data collected at four and six weeks after planting. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analytical software SAS version 9.2. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigments accumulation (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) in maize (15.98, 23.92 and 44.72 μM), Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tomato plants (12.48 and 1,178.7 μM) in the sole stands were more than the mixed culture of maize with cowpea and tomato (7.195, 14.74 and 0.00 μM). Also, total Chlorophyll in maize (1,127.8 μM), Chlorophyll a and total Chlorophyll in tomato (3.95 and 1,317.5 μM) in the mixed culture were more than in the sole culture of maize (1,030.9 μM) and tomato plants (-9.40 and 546.3 μM). The different photosynthetic pigments accumulated in cowpea were greatly enhanced in the mixed culture than in the sole culture. All the photosynthetic pigments of maize, cowpea and tomato in all the treatments analysed in this study were significantly different at P>0.05. Plant growth indices such as net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate and tissue water contents of these plants had higher value in the intercropped than the check crop (sole). These plant growth indices were significantly different to one another at P>0.05. This study concluded that competition for shared resources in the mixed culture of tomato, maize and cowpea enhanced growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments.
  • Characteristics of GLDAS soil-moisture data on the Tibet Plateau
  • HongYan Bao, Kai Yang, ChengHai Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00127
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 127–141 Abstract ( 37) HTML PDF (5447 KB) ( 18 )
  • In this paper, the applicability of soil-moisture (SM) datasets of GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) in an alpine region (Tibet Plateau, TP) is investigated. The relations and discrepancies between the GLDAS-NOAH SM (0~10 cm) and the observations are compared; the possible reasons for errors over the TP are explored. The results show that GLDAS SM biases mainly show up in errors of values in the nonfrozen period (April to October) and changes of SM along with the temperature, especially during the freezing-thawing process in the frozen period (November to March). The biases of GLDAS SM in the nonfrozen period are mainly caused by the GLDAS precipitation-forcing data. The errors of GLDAS SM in the frozen period are speculated to be induced by the freeze-thaw parameterization scheme in the land-surface model.
  • Radiation balance and the response of albedo to environmental factors above two alpine ecosystems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau
  • ShaoYing Wang, Yu Zhang, ShiHua Lyu, LunYu Shang, YouQi Su, HanHui Zhu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00142
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 142–157 Abstract ( 29) HTML PDF (1484 KB) ( 19 )
  • Understanding the energy balance on the Tibetan Plateau is important for better prediction of global climate change. To characterize the energy balance on the Plateau, we examined the radiation balance and the response of albedo to environmental factors above an alpine meadow and an alpine wetland surfaces in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, using 2014 data. Although our two sites belong to the same climatic background, and are close geographically, the annual incident solar radiation at the alpine meadow site (6,447 MJ/(m2·a)) was about 1.1 times that at the alpine wetland site (6,012 MJ/(m2·a)), due to differences in the cloudiness between our two sites. The alpine meadow and the alpine wetland emitted about 38% and 42%, respectively, of annual incident solar radiation back into atmosphere in the form of net longwave radiation; and they reflected about 22% and 18%, respectively, of the annual incident solar radiation back into atmosphere in the form of shortwave radiation. The annual net radiation was 2,648 and 2,544 MJ/(m2·a) for the alpine meadow site and the alpine wetland site, respectively, accounting for only about 40% of the annual incident solar radiation, significantly lower than the global mean. At 30-min scales, surface albedo exponentially decreases with the increase of the solar elevation angle; and it linearly decreases with the increase of soil-water content for our two sites. But those relationships are significantly influenced by cloudiness and are site-specific.
  • Winter estimation of surface roughness length over eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
  • LunYu Shang, Yu Zhang, ShiHua Lyu, ShaoYing Wang, YinHuan Ao, SiQiong Luo, ShiQiang Chen
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00151
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 151–157 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (6846 KB) ( 6 )
  • Based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, a scheme was developed to calculate surface roughness length. Surface roughness length over the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the winter season was then estimated using the scheme and eddy covariance measurement data. Comparisons of estimated and measured wind speeds show that the scheme is feasible to calculate surface roughness length. The estimated roughness lengths at the measurement site during unfrozen, frozen and melted periods are 3.23×10-3, 2.27×10-3 and 1.92×10-3 m, respectively. Surface roughness length demonstrates a deceasing trend with time during the winter season. Thereby, setting the roughness length to be a constant value in numerical models could lead to certain degree of simulation errors. The variation of surface roughness length may be caused by the change in land surface characteristic.
  • Effects of salt and alkali stress on Reaumuria soongorica germination
  • Fang Wang, HongLang Xiao, XiaoMei Peng, Shang Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00158
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 158–166 Abstract ( 29) HTML PDF (782 KB) ( 21 )
  • Seed germination and early seedling growth are crucial stages for plant establishment. Two neutral (NaCl and Na2SO4) and two alkali (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) salts were selected to investigate their effects on germination and recovery responses in Reaumuria soongorica. Results show that both salt types significantly reduced germination and radicle elongation. The rate of germination and emergence of R. soongorica seeds continuously decreased as salinity increased, and the time to achieve maximum germination rate was delayed. The speed of seed germination dropped rapidly as salt concentration increased. Alkaline salts restricted the germination rate of R. soongorica seeds, and stresses resulting from alkaline salts and high concentrations of neutral salts resulted in many deformed seedlings. The length of the radicle and germ decreased with increasing salt concentration, but certain concentrations of salt and increased pH promoted germ growth. The results of regression analysis show that salt concentration was the dominant factor inhibiting R. soongorica seed germination rate. Salinity, buffering capacity, and pH all affected embryo growth, but salinity had the most pronounced effect. Seed viability under highly saline conditions appears to be a better indicator of adaptation to saline environments than seed germination under saline conditions.
  • An Arthrobacter strain isolated from desert soils in the region of Shule River (China) can convert cellulose to potential biofuels
  • Constantine Uwaremwe, ShiWeng Li, XiMing Chen, Maurice Ngabire, Tawheed Mohammed Elheesin Shareef, Juan Li, MingHui Wu, GuoLi Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00167
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 167–174 Abstract ( 42) HTML PDF (4706 KB) ( 32 )
  • In this study, an Arthrobacter strain from desert soils in the Shule River Valley was isolated, China, which has a strong ability to convert cellulose to potential biofuel. In total, from five soil sample sites, six strains were isolated that grew well on CMC-Agar medium, with colony diameters ranging from 3~4 mm, among them, one strain had a strong ability to produce biofuels. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the isolate was identified as Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strain SLP1. The chemical properties of the biofuel extracted from the fermentation broth of strain SLP1 were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 41 kinds of carbon compounds were identified, of those, five were detected at peak concentration and the carbon numbers ranged from C16- C22, which can be classified as alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols. Furthermore, biofuel-producing ability of strain SLP1 was enhanced using NTG mutagen. In a total of 94 mutant strains, four show the most enhanced biofuel production relative to the original strain. Biofuel production conditions were optimized by growing the four mutant strains on LB-Agar and SS-Agar medium.
  • Evapotranspiration of a Populuseuphratica Oliv. forest and its controlling factors in the lowerHeihe RiverBasin, Northwest China
  • TengFei Yu, Qi Feng, JianHua Si, XiaoYou Zhang, ChunYan Zhao
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00175
  • 2017, Vol.9 (2): 175–182 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (2136 KB) ( 19 )
  • Evapotranspiration (ET) within an ecosystem is crucial for the water-limited environment that currently lacks adequate quantification in the arid region of Northwest China, mainly covered by phreatophytes, such as the Populus euphratica Oliv. tree and the Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. shrub species. Accordingly, ET was measured for an entire year using eddy covariance (EC) in P. euphratica stands in the lower Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. During the growing season, the total ET was 850 mm, with a mean of 4.0 mm/d, which is obviously more than that observed at tree-level and standlevel scales, which was likely due to the different level of soil evaporation induced by irrigation via water conveyance. Factors associated with ET fall into either environmental or plant eco-physiological categories. Environmental factors account for at least 79% variation of ET, and the linear relationship between ET and the groundwater table (GWT) revealed the potential water use of P. euphratica forests under the non-water stress condition with the GWT less than 3 m deep. Plant eco-physiological parameters, specifically the leaf area index (LAI), have direct impact on the seasonal pattern of ET, which provides a valuable reference to the wide-area estimates of ET for riparian forests by using LAI. In conclusion, P.euphratica forests have high water use after water conveyance, which may be the result of long-term adapting to local climates and limited water availability.