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2017, 9 (3) Online: 01 June 2017 Previous issue Next issue
  • Laboratory and field performance of recycled aggregate base in a seasonally cold region
  • Tuncer B. Edil, Bora Cetin, Ali Soleimanbeigi
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00183
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 183–191 Abstract ( 70) HTML PDF (757 KB) ( 43 )
  • The objective of this project was to characterize the freeze-thaw properties of recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt (RAP) as unbound base and to assess how they behaved in the field for nearly 8 years. This paper includes an examination of existing information, laboratory studies of freeze-thaw behavior, and evaluation of data from MnROAD field-test sections in a seasonally cold region, i.e., in Minnesota, USA. Test sections were constructed using recycled materials in the granular base layers at the MnROAD test facility. One test section included 100% RAP, another 100% RCA, a third one a 50/50 blend of RCA/natural aggregate, and a fourth one only natural aggregate (Class 5) as a control. The stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus) was monitored during construction and throughout the pavement life by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, along with the variation of temperatures and moisture regimes in the pavement to determine their effects on pavement performance. The resilient modulus of each material was determined by bench-scale testing in accordance with NCHRP 1-28a, as well as by field-scale tests incorporating a falling-weight deflectometer. Specimens were subjected to as many as 20 cycles of freeze-thaw in the laboratory, and the change in their resilient modulus was measured. In the field-test sections constructed with the same materials as the base course, temperature, moisture, and field modulus (from falling-weight deflectometer tests) were monitored seasonally for nearly 8 years. From the temperatures in the base course layer, the number of freeze-thaw cycles experienced in the field was determined for each test section. Inferences were made relative to modulus change versus freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions were drawn for long-term field performances of the recycled base (RAB) in comparison to natural aggregate.
  • Systematization of features and requirements for geological survey of railroad subgrades functioning in cold regions
  • Aleksey Lanis, Denis Razuvaev
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00205
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 205–212 Abstract ( 34) HTML PDF (1125 KB) ( 36 )
  • The operation of a railway track in cold regions results in the premature deformation of subgrade soils caused by significant temperature fluctuations and ecological imbalance. Identification and calculation of the thawing degree of permafrost soils, frost heaving of clays, and groundwater flooding require careful engineering and geological surveying. The paper describes the unique, long-standing experience of the university scientists connected with maintaining the Russian East-Siberian and Trans-Baikal Railways' facilities. Specific features of and requirements for the surveying, depending on the geological and climatic conditions, are identified.
  • Application of a nondestructive method to evaluate the active layer in a cold region
  • Won-Taek Hong, Jong-Sub Lee
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00213
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 213–220 Abstract ( 39) HTML PDF (969 KB) ( 24 )
  • To provide a safe transportation system in an extremely cold region, evaluation needs to be conducted of the thickness and the volumetric water content of the active layer, as they significantly affect frost heave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dielectric constant (κ) of the active layer using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and a dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP); this evaluation was then used to estimate the thickness and the volumetric water content of the active layer. A field located in midwest Alaska was selected as the study site. A GPR survey and two DCP tests were conducted on the surface of the ground, and the ground temperature was measured. From the GPR survey, travel times of the electromagnetic wave in the active layer were obtained. In addition, the thickness of the active layer was determined by using the dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) and ground temperature. By using the travel time and travel distance of the electromagnetic wave in the active layer, dielectric constants were calculated as 26.3 and 26.4 for two DCP points. From the mean dielectric constant, the volumetric water content was estimated to be 40%~43%, and the thickness of the active layer was evaluated along the GPR survey line. The spatial-scaled GPR image showed that the thickness of the active layer varied from 520 mm to 700 mm due to the presence of a puddle, which accelerated the heat exchange. The results show that evaluation of the dielectric constant using the GPR survey and the DCP test can be effectively used to estimate the thickness and the volumetric water content of the active layer.
  • Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
  • JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 221–228 Abstract ( 66) HTML PDF (4411 KB) ( 46 )
  • The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
  • Frost heave analysis of ballasted track above box culvert and its influence on train vibration
  • Bin Luo, Hao Lai, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Tetsuya Tokoro
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00229
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 229–235 Abstract ( 37) HTML PDF (944 KB) ( 25 )
  • The uneven frost heave of frost-susceptible subgrade soil causes track irregularity, which highly enhances train vibration and affects the comfort and safety of railway transportation. This paper presents a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) analysis for the freezing behavior of railway located above a box culvert. The vertical acceleration of the vehicle, an indicator of riding comfort, is predicted through a vehicle dynamic model. The results reveal that the existence of a box culvert changes the subgrade thermal pattern, leading to a deeper frost penetration depth. The frost heave amount above the box culvert is larger than the adjacent section, resulting in uneven track structure upheave and track irregularity. This frost-induced track irregularity highly affects train vibration.
  • Direct shear tests of coarse-grained fillings from high-speed railway subgrade in cold regions
  • QingZhi Wang, JianKun Liu, JianHong Fang, AnHua Xu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00236
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 236–242 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (3277 KB) ( 24 )
  • In order to study the shear behavior of coarse-grained fillings taken from the subgrade bottom layer of a cold region high-speed railway, large scale direct shear tests were conducted with different normal pressures, water contents and temperatures. The results indicate that the relationship between shear displacement and shear stress changed from strain-softening at lower normal pressures to strain-hardening at higher normal pressures, in both unfrozen and frozen states. This phenomenon was mainly due to the shear dilatation deformation effect. The shear displacement-shear stress curves show similar stages. Besides, the shear stress rapidly increased and there was not an increment in the shear displacement during the initial stage of the shear process in the frozen state. In both the unfrozen or frozen states at the same water contents, the shear strength increased with increasing normal pressure.
  • Moisture transfer and phase change in unsaturated soils: an experimental study of two types of canopy effect
  • ZuoYue He, JiDong Teng, Sheng Zhang, DaiChao Sheng
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00243
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 243–249 Abstract ( 36) HTML PDF (714 KB) ( 31 )
  • Canopy effect refers to the phenomenon in which moisture accumulates underneath an impervious cover. A canopy effect can lead to full saturation of the soil underneath the impervious cover. A recent theoretical study separates the canopy effect into two types. The first one is caused by evaporation-condensation in unsaturated soils, while the second one is induced by freezing-enhanced vapour transfer in unsaturated soils. To validate experimentally these two types of canopy effect and to reveal their mechanisms, moisture-migration experiments were carried out, using a newly developed laboratory apparatus for unsaturated frozen soils. Six conditions were applied to the calcareous sand, with different initial water contents and boundary temperatures. The results show that water content in the upper portion of the sample increased under an upward temperature gradient, and the increment of water content was greater if the soil was subjected to freezing. For the freezing cases, the depth of the peak water content was in line with the freezing front. And the greater the initial water content, the more the water content accumulated at the freezing front. However, a lower cooling rate seemed to facilitate vapour migration. For the unfrozen cases, the water content in the upper portion of the sample also increased; and the increases became more apparent with a higher initial moisture content. The temperature gradient can also inhibit the vapour migration. A less steep temperature gradient always resulted in a more notable inhibition effect. Test results seem to verify the theory of the canopy effect.
  • Numerical simulation and experimental validation of moisture-heat coupling for saturated frozen soils
  • ZhiMing Li, Jian Chen, Kai Sun, Bin Zhang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00250
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 250–257 Abstract ( 45) HTML PDF (1039 KB) ( 38 )
  • In seasonally frozen regions, freezing-and-thawing action is the main cause responsible for the destruction of canals, which is closely linked to the temperature gradient and water transport. To investigate the behaviour of soils under freezing-and-thawing actions, many numerical models have been established that consider the important coupling of moisture transport and temperature evolution; but they contain excessive parameters, some of which are rather difficult to determine. Based on the well-known Harlan's theory, a simple moisture-heat coupling model was recently proposed to quantify the coupled moisture-heat transport performance of soils in terms of the central temperature and porosity. The mathematical module of COMSOL Multiphysics was further employed to solve the governing equations numerically. To validate our model, a thorough experimental scheme was carried out in our lab. The measured temperature distribution was found to be consistent with the predicted results.
  • Year-round cooling and thermal stabilization of water-saturated soils under engineering structures
  • Vladimir Moiseev, Nicolai Vasiliev, Tatyana Komarova, Olga Komarova
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00258
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 258–260 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (692 KB) ( 15 )
  • We consider the problem of year-round cooling of water-saturated soil to freezing temperatures in order to convert it into a state of permafrost.A new soil-cooling apparatus is proposed.The apparatus is to be made in modular form and connected to passive-active thermal piles (thermosyphons).The estimated capacity of one apparatus allows simultaneous use of up to 1,000 thermal piles for ground freezing.The apparatus is based on natural sources of energy:solar radiation and wind;and it can be used for soil freezing.This approach can prevent thawing of soft soils under railways and roads,as well as under buildings or structures,in an area of more than tens of hectares.The apparatus has no mechanical moving parts and can operate for a long time in stand-alone mode without staff involvement.
  • Using attributes of electromagnetic waves to determine the water content and frost table in a permafrost area
  • ZhiChun Zhang, YuPeng Shen, Xiao Wang, YaHu Tian, JianKun Liu, Bagdat Teltayev
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00261
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 261–266 Abstract ( 33) HTML PDF (929 KB) ( 24 )
  • The thawing-melting of the permafrost damages the subground of highways on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. With the application of ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) technology, the maximum permafrost melting interface can be effectively distinctly differentiated and imaged. A hierarchical feature of the permafrost region is shown clearly on the imaging profile of GPR data. The complete ablation zone or part of it is displayed distinctly. In addition, the details of subsurface layers can be effectively characterized by GPR attribute-analysis technology. With the attribute calculation and filter, the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous frequency, and relative wave impedance can be applied in a more efficient way to divide the complete ablation zone, part of the ablation and non-ablation interface. The relative distribution of water content in a seasonally thawing permafrost region can be obtained through a comprehensive GPR attribute analysis.
  • Effect of cryostructures on the uniaxial compressive strength of frozen clay
  • JianWei Wang, HaiPeng Li, Lei Song, Shuai Dou, XinLei Na
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00267
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 267–272 Abstract ( 27) HTML PDF (2048 KB) ( 14 )
  • Unconfined uniaxial compressive tests were performed to study the influence of cryostructure on frozen clay's behavior, such as strain-stress,compressive strength,and failure characteristics,at temperatures varying from -10 to -2℃ and strain rates varying from 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-3 s-1.Artificial samples were prepared of three types:(1) integral structure,(2) laminar structure,and (3) reticular structure.The impact of temperature,strain rate,and cryostructure on the mechanical properties is discussed.In general,frozen clay with various cryostructures shows strain-softening behavior in the range of testing temperatures and strain rates.For frozen clay of different cryostructures,the ultimate compressive strength increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature.Under the same testing conditions,the ultimate compressive strengths from high to low are in integral samples,laminar samples,and reticular samples.Failure strain of frozen clay generally increases with increasing temperature and does not indicate any correlation with cryostructure or strain rate. The failure mode of integral and reticular samples was shear failure,while laminar samples showed tensile failure.
  • Frost-heave properties of saturated compacted silty clay under one-side freezing condition
  • HongYan Ma, Feng Zhang, DeCheng Feng, KangWei Tang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00273
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 273–279 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (2927 KB) ( 23 )
  • In seasonally frozen regions, the frost-heave properties of soil play a significant role in its upper-structure performance and durability. To investigate the frost-heave behaviors of saturated, compacted silty clay soil widely used as subgrade material, a series of one-side freezing tests was carried out; and the freezing depth and frozen front effected by the compactness, temperature, overburden pressure, and water-supply condition were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the moving speed of the frozen front and growth rate of the frozen depth are positively correlated. The frost heave is maximum in the frost-heave stability condition. The frost ratio of saturated soil is proportional to the water supply and cooling temperature under a one-side freezing condition. The frost ratio of saturated soil is inversely proportional to the initial compactness of the soil specimen and the overburden pressure.
  • Research on the temperature field of a partially freezing sand barrier with groundwater seepage
  • LiYan Lao, ZhiQiang Ji, LiangLiang Huang, ShangJing Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00280
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 280–288 Abstract ( 38) HTML PDF (1109 KB) ( 37 )
  • To study the distribution characteristics and variation regularity of the temperature field during the process of seepage freezing, a simulated-freezing test with seepage of Xuzhou sand was completed by using a model test developed in-house equipment. By means of three group freezing tests with different seepage velocities, we discovered the phenomenon of the asymmetry of the temperature field under the influence of seepage. The temperature upstream was obviously higher than that downstream. The temperature gradient upstream was also steeper than that downstream. With a higher seepage velocity, the asymmetry of the temperature field is more pronounced. The asymmetry for the interface temperature profile is more strongly manifest than for the main surface temperature profile. The cryogenic barrier section is somewhat "heart-shaped". With the increasing velocity of the seepage flow, the cooling rate of the soil decreases. It takes much time to reach the equilibrium state of the soil mass. In our study, seepage flow velocities of 0 m/d, 7.5 m/d, and 15 m/d showed the soil-cooling rate of 4.35℃/h, 4.96℃/h, and 1.72℃/h, respectively.
  • Experimental study of the dynamic behavior of high-grade highway-subgrade soil in a seasonally frozen area
  • HongHuan Cui, YuTao Ma, JianKun Liu, ZhiYang Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00289
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 289–296 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (3360 KB) ( 20 )
  • Regarding the freezing damage of high-grade highway subgrade in seasonally frozen area, the thesis explores the effect on the dynamic behavior of subgrade soil under freeze-thaw cycles and draws the change law of parameters (including dynamic strength, dynamic cohesion, and internal friction angle; and dynamic elastic modulus) of high-grade highway-subgrade soil with the number of freeze-thaw cycles. It aims to provide the reference for operation and maintenance of a high-grade highway. Conclusions: (1) Dynamic strength tends to decline evidently after freeze-thaw cycles, with 60%~70% decline after three cycles, and remains stable after five to seven cycles. (2) With the number of freeze-thaw cycles increasing, the internal friction angle fluctuates within a certain range without an obvious change law, only presenting the tendency of dropping off. The dynamic cohesion declines obviously, about 20%~40% after seven freeze-thaw cycles, and then tends to be stable. (3) With the number of freeze-thaw cycles increasing, the dynamic elastic modulus and maximum dynamic elastic modulus are inclined to decrease distinctly. After five freeze-thaw cycles, the former declines 30%~40% and then remains stable. Meanwhile, the latter falls 20%~40%.
  • Experimental investigation on static and dynamic resilient moduli of compacted fine soil
  • QiuBo Yan, Feng Zhang, KangWei Tang, ShuJuan Wang, Yan Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00297
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 297–306 Abstract ( 32) HTML PDF (902 KB) ( 28 )
  • To investigate the static and dynamic resilient modulus of fine soil, and adapting to the new design code and maintenance system of highway subgrade in China, a series of static and dynamic tests were carried out according to the standard laboratory test methods (JTG E40-2007 and JTG D30-2015, respectively). The effects of initial water content, compactness and freeze-thaw cycles on the static and dynamic resilient moduli of fine soil were investigated and analyzed. Experimental test results show that with increasing water content, dry density and freeze-thaw cycles, the static moduli reduces about 10.2%~40.0%, 14.4%~45.5%, and 24.0%~50.3%, and dynamic moduli reduces about 10.9%~90.8%, 2.5%~38.4%, and 0.0%~46.0%, respectively. Then, the empirical mathematical relationship between static and dynamic resilient moduli was established under different water content, dry density and freeze-thaw cycles. The investigation results can be used to determine the dynamic modulus of fine soil by widely used static modulus, which could meet the requirement of adopting dynamic modulus index in new specification.
  • Deformation properties of chloride saline soil under action of a low-temperature environment and different loads
  • Yu Zhang, JianKun Liu, JianHong Fang, AnHua Xu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00307
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 307–311 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (1226 KB) ( 18 )
  • To find the deformation properties of chloride saline soil under the influence of a low temperature environment and different loads,two types of chloride saline soil were selected and their deformation process was tested in the laboratory and analyzed during the cooling process in the sensitive cryogenic temperature range.The research results show that high-chloride-salt saline soil underwent little volume change under the no-load condition during the cooling process.Under staticload and dynamic-load conditions,different degrees of settlement deformation occurred;throughout the entire cooling process,another chloride saline soil with a high proportion of sulfate salt underwent volume expansion under no-load and static-load conditions.Under the no-load condition,a certain degree of settlement deformation occurred.Deformation properties were evaluated at different time points during the cooling process for two kinds of chloride saline soil.Finally, deformation characteristics of chloride saline soil were analyzed from the perspective of salt type and crystallization variation under the action of a low-temperature environment and different loads.
  • Test results of railway ballast for bearing capacity calculations
  • Alexey F. Kolos, Anastasia A. Konon
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00312
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 312–316 Abstract ( 31) HTML PDF (1585 KB) ( 17 )
  • This paper presents the results of field and laboratory tests of railway ballast.Field tests were aimed to study vibrational acceleration of ballast particles and ballast layer stressed state in terms of train traffic with heavy axle loads.The test results are vibrational acceleration and stress values distribution in ballast layer and experimental relationships of vertical and horizontal vibroaccelerations damping in terms of train operation with axle load up to 300 kN.Laboratory stabilometer tests were directed to study the change of ballast strength properties due to vibrodynamic impact and shows that for dynamic loading with 10,25,55 Hz frequencies vibrodynamic impact influences strength properties insignificantly and coincides with the accuracy of test equipment.Stated test results provide references for calculation of ballast and sub-ballast bearing capacity.
  • Strengthening long-term embankments maintained on permafrost soils
  • Evgeny S. Ashpiz, Tatyana S. Vavrinyuk
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00317
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 317–320 Abstract ( 30) HTML PDF (4763 KB) ( 24 )
  • An analysis of the reasons for the displacements of long-term embankments maintained on permafrost soils indicates that they mainly occur due to plastic deformations in the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing; therefore, the reconstruction of permafrost is not effective in this case. It is proposed to strengthen these embankments with the help of using jet technology for cementation of the top layer of the roadbed. This approach is considered through the example of the deforming embankment on 6,278 km of the Turinskaya-Karymskaya section of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
  • Freezing characteristics of a highway subgrade
  • Teltayev Bagdat, Suppes Elena
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00325
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 325–330 Abstract ( 28) HTML PDF (3072 KB) ( 18 )
  • Temperature and moisture variations were experimentally investigated for the subgrade of the Astana-Burabai Highway, located in the northern region of Kazakhstan.Temperature and moisture were measured by means of specially manufactured sensors,including an element for temperature measurement based on the effect of thermal resistance and an element for moisture measurement through diamagnetic permeability.It was determined that the long-term average depth of frost penetration was 237 cm.In the upper part of the subgrade with 1 m of thickness,the average duration of a frozen condition decreases toward the bottom from 131 days to 117 days,with an average rate of 0.133 day/cm.The unfrozen water content decreases with the negative temperature reduction.In the case of high values of initial moisture (12%~22%),the unfrozen water content does not depend on the initial moisture;and it decreases under the power law,with reduction of negative temperature.In the case of the lowest values of moisture (9%~12%),the unfrozen water content depends also on negative temperature;but its values are considerably lower.
  • Geotechnical problems on freezing ground soil and experimental investigation in Kazakhstan
  • Askar Zhussupbekov, Zhanbolat Shakhmov, Gulshat Tleulenova
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00331
  • 2017, Vol.9 (3): 331–334 Abstract ( 35) HTML PDF (1061 KB) ( 27 )
  • Frost susceptibility should be considered in the design and construction of foundations and retaining-wall structures in regions with the seasonally freezing-soil ground condition. When planning construction that goes deep into this soil, one has to understand the impact of horizontal forces to an underground wall and realize the potential effect of frost heaving upon, deep foundations. This article presents a few soil tests for frost heaving and the results of those tests show dangerous data for retaining structures under the soil conditions in Kazakhstan. The main parameters of the soil include frost penetration and heaving rate and amount. So, in designing underground structures, one must understand and consider that frost heaving occurs in various directions; this factor is very important for predicting on the restriction of deformations of structures in the seasonally freezing-soil ground condition.