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2018, 10 (6) Online: 01 December 2018 Previous issue Next issue
  • Applying the AHP-FUZZY method to evaluate the measure effect of rubble roadbed engineering in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: a case study of Chaidaer-Muli Railway
  • Wei Cao,Yu Sheng,Ji Chen,JiChun Wu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00447
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 447–457 Abstract ( 73) HTML ( 10) PDF (480 KB) ( 32 )
  • This article attempts to investigate the measure effect of rubble roadbed engineering in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As a case study, Chaidaer-Muli Railway is used to evaluate the measure effect of rubble roadbed engineering in permafrost regions. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is thus employed to establish the evaluation indicator system. The evaluation factor is selected by analyzing the mutual relation between the permafrost environment and roadbed engineering. Thus, a hierarchical structure model is established based on the selected evaluation indices. Each factor is weighted to determine the status in the evaluation system, and grading standards are built for providing a basis for the evaluation. Then, the fuzzy mathematical method is introduced to evaluate the measure effect of rubble roadbed engineering in permafrost regions along the Chadaer-Muli Railway. Results show that most of the permafrost roadbed is in a preferable condition (b) along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway due to rubble engineering measures. This proportion reaches to 86.1%. The proportion in good (a), general (c) and poor states (d) are 0.0%, 7.5% and 6.4%, respectively, in all the evaluation sections along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway. Ground-temperature monitoring results are generally consistent with AHP-FUZZY evaluation results. This means that the AHP-FUZZY method can be applied to evaluate the effect of rubble roadbed engineering measures in permafrost regions. The effect evaluation of engineering measures will provide timely and effective feedback information for further engineering design. The series of engineering measures will more effectively protect permafrost stability.

  • Stable isotopes reveal varying water sources of Caragana microphylla in a desert-oasis ecotone near the Badain Jaran Desert
  • Hai Zhou,WenZhi Zhao,ZhiBin He,Heng Ren
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00458
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 458–467 Abstract ( 62) HTML ( 7) PDF (10064 KB) ( 55 )
  • Understanding the variation in a plant's water sources is critical to understanding hydrological processes in water-limited environments. Here, we measured the stable-isotope ratios (δ18O) of xylem water of Caragana microphylla, precipitation, soil water from different depths, and groundwater to quantitatively analyze the proportion of water sources for the shrub. We found that the water sources of C. microphylla differed with the plant's ages and the seasons. The main water source for young shrubs was upper-soil water, and it showed significant changes with seasonal precipitation inputs. In summer, the proportion contributed by shallow water was significantly increased with increased precipitation inputs. Then, the contribution from shallow-soil water decreased with the decline in precipitation input in spring and autumn. However, the adult shrubs resorted to deep-soil layers and groundwater as the main water sources during the whole growing season and showed much less seasonal variation. We conclude that the main water source of the young shrubs was upper-soil water and was controlled by precipitation inputs. However, once the shrub gradually grew up and the roots reached sufficient depth, the main water sources change from the upper-soil layer recharged by precipitation to deep-soil water and groundwater, which were relatively stable and abundant in the desert ecosystem. These results also suggest that desert shrubs may be able to switch their main water sources to deep and reliable water sources as their age increases, and this adjustment to water availability carries significant importance for their acclimation to the desert habitat.

  • Simulation and prediction of monthly accumulated runoff, based on several neural network models under poor data availability
  • JianPing Qian,JianPing Zhao,Yi Liu,XinLong Feng,DongWei Gui
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00468
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 468–481 Abstract ( 47) HTML ( 3) PDF (662 KB) ( 30 )
  • Most previous research on areas with abundant rainfall shows that simulations using rainfall-runoff modes have a very high prediction accuracy and applicability when using a back-propagation (BP), feed-forward, multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN). However, in runoff areas with relatively low rainfall or a dry climate, more studies are needed. In these areas—of which oasis-plain areas are a particularly good example—the existence and development of runoff depends largely on that which is generated from alpine regions. Quantitative analysis of the uncertainty of runoff simulation under climate change is the key to improving the utilization and management of water resources in arid areas. Therefore, in this context, three kinds of BP feed-forward, three-layer ANNs with similar structure were chosen as models in this paper. Taking the oasis–plain region traverse by the Qira River Basin in Xinjiang, China, as the research area, the monthly accumulated runoff of the Qira River in the next month was simulated and predicted. The results showed that the training precision of a compact wavelet neural network is low; but from the forecasting results, it could be concluded that the training algorithm can better reflect the whole law of samples. The traditional artificial neural network (TANN) model and radial basis-function neural network (RBFNN) model showed higher accuracy in the training and prediction stage. However, the TANN model, more sensitive to the selection of input variables, requires a large number of numerical simulations to determine the appropriate input variables and the number of hidden-layer neurons. Hence, The RBFNN model is more suitable for the study of such problems. And it can be extended to other similar research arid-oasis areas on the southern edge of the Kunlun Mountains and provides a reference for sustainable water-resource management of arid-oasis areas.

  • Contrasting vegetation changes in dry and humid regions of the Tibetan Plateau over recent decades
  • RuiQing Li,YanHong Gao,DeLiang Chen,YongXin Zhang,SuoSuo Li
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00482
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 482–492 Abstract ( 51) HTML ( 5) PDF (544 KB) ( 22 )
  • An overall greening over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in recent decades has been established through analyses of remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), though the regional pattern of the changes and associated drivers remain to be explored. This study used a satellite Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset (the GLASS LAI dataset) and examined vegetation changes in humid and arid regions of the TP during 1982–2012. Based on distributions of the major vegetation types, the TP was divided roughly into a humid southeastern region dominated by meadow and a dry northwestern region covered mainly by steppe. It was found that the dividing line between the two regions corresponded well with the lines of mean annual precipitation of 400 mm and the mean LAI of 0.3. LAI=0.3 was subsequently used as a threshold for investigating vegetation type changes at the interanual and decadal time scales: if LAI increased from less than 0.3 to greater than 0.3 from one time period to the next, it was regarded as a change from steppe to meadow, and vice versa. The analysis shows that changes in vegetation types occurred primarily around the dividing line of the two regions, with clear growth (reduction) of the area covered by meadow (steppe), in consistency with the findings from using another independent satellite product. Surface air temperature and precipitation (diurnal temperature range) appeared to contribute positively (negatively) to this change though climate variables displayed varying correlation with LAI for different time periods and different regions.

  • Local meteorology in a northern Himalayan valley near Mount Everest and its response to seasonal transitions
  • FangLin Sun,YaoMing Ma,ZeYong Hu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00493
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 493–501 Abstract ( 54) HTML ( 4) PDF (30528 KB) ( 21 )
  • An automatic weather station (AWS) has been installed at the Qomolangma Station of the China Academy of Sciences (QOMS) since 2005, in a northern Himalayan valley near Mount Everest, with an altitude of 4,270 m a.s.l.. Nine years of meteorological records (2006–2014) from the automatic weather station (AWS) were analyzed in this study, aiming to understand the response of local weather to the seasonal transition on the northern slopes of Mount Everest, with consideration of the movement of the subtropical jet (STJ) and the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). We found: (1) Both the synoptic circulation and the orography have a profound influence on the local weather, especially the local circulation. (2) Southwesterly (SW) and southeasterly (SE) winds prevail alternately at QOMS in the afternoon through the year. The SW wind was driven by the STJ during the non-monsoon months, while the SE was induced by the trans-Himalayan flow through the Arun Valley, a major valley to the east of Mount Everest, under a background of weak westerly winds aloft. (3) The response of air temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) to the monsoon onset is not as marked as that of the nearsurface winds. The q increases gradually and reaches a maximum in July when the rainy period begins. (4) The alternation between the SW wind at QOMS and the afternoon SE wind in the pre-monsoon season signals the northward shift of the STJ and imminent monsoon onset. The average interval between these two events is 14 days.

  • Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance
  • MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 502–515 Abstract ( 45) HTML ( 1) PDF (784 KB) ( 45 )
  • Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.

  • Biological improvement of saline alkali soil reference system: A review
  • XueQin Wang,Xu Xing,FengJu Zhang,Kong Xin
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00000
  • 2018, Vol.10 (6): 516–521 Abstract ( 65) HTML ( 4) PDF (284 KB) ( 17 )
  • This work presents a reference system overview to improve the efficiency of biological improvement of saline-alkali soil developed during the last thirty years, ranging from connotation, general methods and species, soil desalination, soil structure, soil organic content, microbial flora, enzyme activity, yield and economic benefits. The reference system presented is divided into three main groups: suitable varieties, suitable cultivation measures, and a comprehensive evaluation system. There has been a lot of research on biological improvement of saline alkali soil, but these studies are very fragmented and lack a comprehensive standard system. Also, there is a lack of practical significance, particularly with regard to optimal species, densities and times of sowing for particular regions. On the other hand, the corresponding cultivation measure is very important. Therefore, a reference system plays an important role to the effect of biological improvement of saline alkali soil.