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2018, 10 (4) Online: 01 August 2018 Previous issue Next issue
  • Comparative foliar anatomy of three Khaya species (Meliaceae) used in Nigeria as antisickling agent
  • Ololade A. Oyedapo,Joseph M. Agbedahunsi,H. C Illoh,Akinwumi J. Akinloye
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00279
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 279–285 Abstract ( 58) HTML ( 5) PDF (1820 KB) ( 37 )
  • Khaya belongs to the family Meliaceae. In Nigeria the genus is represented by three species viz; K. senegalensis A. Juss., K. grandifoliola C. DC. and K. ivorensis A. Chev. Comparative foliar anatomy of the three Khaya species was carried out to identify and describe distinctive anatomical characters that could possibly be used to delimit the three taxa. Transverse section, epidermal peels and cleared leaves of these three species were made. Characteristic similarity and disparity in the tissues arrangement as well as cell inclusions were noted for description and delimitation. The three Khaya species studied had essentially the same anatomical features, e.g., venation pattern having open polygonal areoles and the veins terminals biforkated. However, there were characters that seem to be species specific, e.g., vien termination number and areole width. The leaf epidermal studies of the three species revealed similarities in stomatal type which are generally staurocytic, epidermal cells and undulating anticlinal cell walls but stomata density varied. Hexacytic stomata is only observed in the abaxial surface of K. grandifoliola which distinguished this species from the others. The leaf petiole shape of the three species are round and difficult to distinguish into adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The cuticle is striated, vascular bundles are heart shape, conjoint, concentric and amphivasal, but are different in epidermal and collenchyma cell layer numbers. The leaf transverse sections of the three Khaya species studied have conjoint, concentric and amphicribral bundles while the leaf cuticle of K. senegalensis and K. grandifoliola are striated but that of Khaya ivorensis is non-striated.

  • Industrialization model of enterprises participating in ecological management and suggestions: A case study of the Hobq Model in Inner Mongolia
  • Yong Chen,Tao Wang,LiHua Zhou,Rui Wang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00286
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 286–292 Abstract ( 29) HTML ( 3) PDF (1307 KB) ( 10 )
  • Calling upon all nongovernmental sectors of the society is important to cope with the ecological crisis brought about by rapid development. Enterprises are the active agent of socialist market economic activities and possess a prominent position in the ecological civilization construction of the new age. Making use of the active agent role of enterprises and stimulating the green development of enterprises are essential to realizing the dream of a beautiful China. This paper discusses the development and management experiences of a typical ecological industrialization model, that of the Elion Resources Group in Inner Mongolia. Existing problems are disclosed, and feasible suggestions are given: (1) accelerate the registration of lands to protect legitimate rights and interests, (2) perfect the land-use administration system and make it cover all national land space, (3) perfect the natural resources management system, and (4) compile balance sheets of natural resources and strengthen accountabilities.

  • Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
  • Bing Liu,WenZhi Zhao,YangYang Meng,Chan Liu
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 293–304 Abstract ( 50) HTML ( 2) PDF (1767 KB) ( 25 )
  • Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

  • Analysis of water vapour flux between alpine wetlands underlying surface and atmosphere in the source region of the Yellow River
  • Yan Xie,Jun Wen,Rong Liu,Xin Wang,DongYu Jia
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00305
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 305–316 Abstract ( 49) HTML ( 4) PDF (1908 KB) ( 17 )
  • An underlying wetland surface comprises soil, water and vegetation and is sensitive to local climate change. Analysis of the degree of coupling between wetlands and the atmosphere and a quantitative assessment of how environmental factors influence latent heat flux have considerable scientific significance. Using data from observational tests of the Maduo Observatory of Climate and Environment of the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resource, CAS, from June 1 to August 31, 2014, this study analysed the time-varying characteristics and causes of the degree of coupling (Ω factor) between alpine wetlands underlying surface and the atmosphere and quantitatively calculated the influences of different environmental factors (solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit) on latent heat flux. The results were as follows: (1) Due to diurnal variations of solar radiation and wind speed, a trend developed where diurnal variations of the Ω factor were small in the morning and large in the evening. Due to the vegetation growing cycle, seasonal variations of the Ω factor present a reverse "U" trend. These trends are similar to the diurnal and seasonal variations of the absolute control exercised by solar radiation over latent heat flux. This conforms to the Omega Theory. (2) The values for average absolute atmospheric factor (surface factor or total) control exercised by solar radiation and water vapour pressure are 0.20 (0.02 or 0.22) and 0.005 (?0.07 or ?0.06) W/(m2·Pa), respectively. Generally speaking, solar radiation and water vapour pressure deficit exert opposite forces on latent heat flux. (3) At the underlying alpine wetland surface, solar radiation primarily influences latent heat flux through its direct effects (atmospheric factor controls). Water vapour pressure deficit primarily influences latent heat flux through its indirect effects (surface factor controls) on changing the surface resistance. (4) The average Ω factor in the underlying alpine wetland surface is high during the vegetation growing season, with a value of 0.38, and the degree of coupling between alpine wetland surface and atmosphere system is low. The actual measurements agree with the Omega Theory. The latent heat flux is mainly influenced by solar radiation.

  • Change in summer daily precipitation and its relation with air temperature in Northwest China during 1957–2016
  • CaiXia Zhang,XunMing Wang,YongZhong Su,ZhiWen Han,ZhengCai Zhang,Ting Hua
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00317
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 317–325 Abstract ( 35) HTML ( 1) PDF (1763 KB) ( 24 )
  • On the basis of the summer daily-precipitation meteorological data collected from weather stations across Northwest China from 1957 to 2016, this study evaluated the trends in 12-daily precipitation indices in the summer season and their relations with air temperature. Precipitation-event intensity, which was averaged over the total study area, increased in recent decades although the total precipitation continuously decreased. In particular, intensity generally decreased in the northern and eastern parts and increased in the southern and western parts of the study area. None of the 12 precipitation indices was significantly correlated with temperature in Xinjiang; R95N (number of events with precipitation greater than the long-term 95th percentile), RX1day (greatest 1-day total precipitation), PI (simple daily intensity), and R10 (number of heavy-precipitation days) were significantly and positively correlated with temperature in Qinghai–Gansu. However, low correlation coefficients were observed. In the Loess Plateau, P (total precipitation), WS (maximum number of consecutive wet days), R95N, and WD (number of wet days) were significantly and negatively correlated with temperature, whereas Gini (gini concentration index) and DS (maximum number of consecutive dry days) were significantly and positively correlated with temperature. Results of the study suggested that climate shift was evident in terms of daily precipitation, and the study area faced new challenges involving precipitation-event intensity increasing in the southwestern part and unevenly dispersing in the northwest.

  • Seasonal dynamics of N:P ratio stoichiometry and Ca fraction for four dominant plants in the Alxa Desert
  • JianTan Guo,XingDong He,HongJuan Jing,YuTing Liang
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00326
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 326–332 Abstract ( 37) HTML ( 1) PDF (1405 KB) ( 20 )
  • Desert plants take on unique physiologically adaptive mechanisms in response to an adverse environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca) fraction for dominant species of Artemisia ordosica, A. frigida, Calligonum mongolicum, and Oxytropis aciphylla in the Alxa Desert and discussed seasonal changes of their leaf N:P ratio and Ca fraction. The results showed that, from May to September, the N:P ratios of A. ordosica and C. mongolicum gradually and significantly increased, while those of A. frigida, and O. aciphylla had an increase trend that was not significant; the physiologically active Ca of A. ordosica and A. frigida increased significantly, while that of C. mongolicum and O. aciphylla decreased significantly. The physiologically inert calcium of C. mongolicum increased extremely significantly, while that of others was not significant. There was a significantly positive correlation between the N:P ratio and physiologically active Ca for A. ordosica, and the N:P ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with physiologically active Ca for O. aciphylla. These findings revealed that the physiological regulation mechanism was different for the plants either in earlier stage or later stage of plant-community succession.

  • Effects of N:P ratio of Artemisia ordosica on growth influenced by soil calcium carbonate
  • YuTing Liang,XingDong He,JianTan Guo,HongJuan Jing
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00333
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 333–339 Abstract ( 46) HTML ( 2) PDF (1442 KB) ( 41 )
  • Soil calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has a strong solid phosphorus effect, and high content of CaCO3 can significantly reduce the effectiveness of soil phosphorus. To reveal the limiting effect of soil CaCO3 on the growth of plants on sand land and its mechanism of plant physiology, we performed pot experiments with a two-factor randomized block design and a three-factor orthogonal design for different soil CaCO3 content treatments using Artemisia ordosica seedlings. In the experiments, we surveyed plant height, aboveground biomass, root length and root weight and analyzed N, P concentrations and RNA content of the seedlings, and discussed the relationships between relative growth rate (RGR) of the seedlings and N:P ratio as well as RNA. Results show that, the RGRs of plant height and above-ground biomass of the seedlings decreased significantly with the increase of soil CaCO3 content, and those for root length and root weight decreased. The RGRs of plant height and above-ground biomass of the seedlings were significantly negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratios, but significantly positively correlated with leaf RNA content and leaf P concentrations. It can be seen that soil CaCO3 is a stress factor for the growth of A. ordosica seedlings, and the growth response of the seedlings under the influence of soil CaCO3 is in line with the Growth Rate Hypothesis.

  • Comparisons of plant calcium fraction between two different vegetation zones in semi-arid region
  • MengQi Li,XingDong He,XiangXiang Yang,YueDan Zhao,YuBao Gao
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00340
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 340–346 Abstract ( 29) HTML ( 1) PDF (1360 KB) ( 11 )
  • To explore the characteristics of plant calcium (Ca) fraction, we analyzed 91 plant species in the Ningxia Habahu National Nature Reserve in Yanchi County of Ningxia and 84 plant species in Zhenglan Banner of Inner Mongolia. Results show that, for the two regions, there is no significant difference between Ca fraction for the same growth type, and between water soluble Ca content or between hydrochloric acid soluble Ca content for plants of the same ecosystem and between hydrochloric acid soluble Ca content for plants of the same family. In similar vegetation zones, there is a significant difference among hydrochloric acid soluble Ca content for different growth types in Yanchi County and Zhenglan Banner, which was the highest for annual herbs and the lowest for perennial herbs. There is a significant difference between acetic acid soluble Ca content and between hydrochloric acid soluble Ca content for sandy land and grassland ecosystems in Yanchi County. There is a significant difference among the same Ca fraction of different families in the same region. Thus, the characteristics of plant Ca fraction are results of long-term adaptation to the environment.

  • Cultivated-land change in Mu Us Sandy Land of China before and after the first-stage grain-for-green policy
  • Na Li,ChangZhen Yan,JiaLi Xie,JianXia Ma
  • DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00347
  • 2018, Vol.10 (4): 347–353 Abstract ( 19) HTML ( 1) PDF (1350 KB) ( 12 )
  • Mu Us Sandy Land (MUSL) of China, as a typical eco-fragile and farming-pastoral transitional region, shows great vulnerability to disturbances from cultivation activity. In this region, the conflict between cultivation activity and environmental protection has not attracted great importance until the implementation of China's Grain-for-Green Policy (CGGP) since 2000. Here, using Landsat5 TM/Landsat7 ETM+ images from 1990, 2000, and 2010, we monitor the cultivation activity and land-use/cover changes (LUCC) resulting from cultivation activity in the MUSL region. Based on the data from images, we developed a series of databases of cultivated activity-induced LUCC and use them to discuss comparatively the spatio-temporal evolution trends of cultivation activity before and after CGGP implementation. These results provide evidence for managers to evaluate the implementation effectiveness of governmental policy and the influence of cultivation activity on the ecological environment of the MUSL region.