Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2018, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 279-285.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00279

   

Comparative foliar anatomy of three Khaya species (Meliaceae) used in Nigeria as antisickling agent

Ololade A. Oyedapo1,*(),Joseph M. Agbedahunsi1,H. C Illoh2,Akinwumi J. Akinloye2   

  1. 1 Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
    2 Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
  • Received:2017-05-29 Accepted:2018-06-04 Online:2018-08-01 Published:2018-11-22
  • Contact: Ololade A. Oyedapo E-mail:ololadeoyedapo@yahoo.com;jagbedah@oauife.edu.ng

Abstract:

Khaya belongs to the family Meliaceae. In Nigeria the genus is represented by three species viz; K. senegalensis A. Juss., K. grandifoliola C. DC. and K. ivorensis A. Chev. Comparative foliar anatomy of the three Khaya species was carried out to identify and describe distinctive anatomical characters that could possibly be used to delimit the three taxa. Transverse section, epidermal peels and cleared leaves of these three species were made. Characteristic similarity and disparity in the tissues arrangement as well as cell inclusions were noted for description and delimitation. The three Khaya species studied had essentially the same anatomical features, e.g., venation pattern having open polygonal areoles and the veins terminals biforkated. However, there were characters that seem to be species specific, e.g., vien termination number and areole width. The leaf epidermal studies of the three species revealed similarities in stomatal type which are generally staurocytic, epidermal cells and undulating anticlinal cell walls but stomata density varied. Hexacytic stomata is only observed in the abaxial surface of K. grandifoliola which distinguished this species from the others. The leaf petiole shape of the three species are round and difficult to distinguish into adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The cuticle is striated, vascular bundles are heart shape, conjoint, concentric and amphivasal, but are different in epidermal and collenchyma cell layer numbers. The leaf transverse sections of the three Khaya species studied have conjoint, concentric and amphicribral bundles while the leaf cuticle of K. senegalensis and K. grandifoliola are striated but that of Khaya ivorensis is non-striated.

Key words: Khaya, foliar, anatomy, epidermal, stomata, vascular

Table 1

Comparative architectural features of leaves from three Khaya species "

Characters K. senegalensis K. grandifoliola K. ivorensis
Areole Open Open Open
Areole shape Polygonal Polygonal Polygonal
Vein terminals Bi-forked Bi-forked Bi-forked
Vein terminals No. 4–27 2–50 2–36
Vein islets Absent Absent Absent
Length of areole 0.028–0.125 μm 0.011–0.165 μm 0.011–0.160 μm
Average length of areoles 0.068 μm 0.078 μm 0.058 μm
Width of areoles 0.023–0.068 μm 0.008–0.070 μm 0.007–0.091 μm
Average width of areoles 0.045 μm 0.042 μm 0.035 μm

Figure 1

Venation patterns of Khaya species showing multiple areoles and areole shape. (a) K. senegalensis, (b) K. grandifoliola, (c) K. ivorensis (VT: veinlet termination, BFT: bi-forked terminals, ARL: areoles, PGS: polygonal shape, MOA: multiple areoles) "

Table 2

Leaf adaxial epidermal and epidermal appendage features of three Khaya species "

Character K. senegalensis K. grandifoliola K. ivorensis
Stomata Present (scanty) Present Present (scanty)
Stomata type Staurocytic Staurocytic Staurocytic
Stomata density 0.3 stomata/mm2 3 stomata/mm2 0.2 stomata/mm2
Epidermal shape Polygonal, rectangular to triangular Polygonal, rectangular to triangular Polygonal, rectangular to triangular
Anticlinal wall Straight and undulating Straight and undulating Straight and undulating
Crystal druses Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell
Ergastic substance Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell

Figure 2

Adaxial features of Khaya species. (a) K. senegalensis, (b) K. grandifoliola, (c) K. ivorensis (CD: crystal druses, SMT: stomata, ACW: anticlinal wall, EPCS: epidermal cell wall) "

Table 3

Leaf abaxial epidermal and epidermal appendage features of three Khaya species "

Character K. senegalensis K. grandifoliola K. ivorensis
Stomata Present Present Present
Stomata type Staurocytic Staurocytic and hexacytic (scanty) Staurocytic
Stomata density 2 stomata/mm2 3 stomata/mm2 4 stomata/mm2
Epidermal cell Polygonal, rectangular to triangular Polygonal, rectangular to triangular Polygonal, rectangular to triangular
Anticlinal wall Straight and undulating Straight and undulating Straight and undulating
Crystal druses Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell Present in epidermal cell

Figure 3

Abaxial features of Khaya species. (a) K. senegalensis, (b) K. grandifoliola, (c) K. ivorensis (CD: crystal druses, SMT: stomata, ACW: anticlinal wall, EPCS: epidermal cell wall) "

Figure 4

Leaf anatomy in mid-transverse section of Khaya species. (a) K. senegalensis, (b) K. grandifoliola, (c) K. ivorensis (EPL: epidermal layer, MEL: mesophyll layer, VB: vascular bundle, PAL: palisade layer, SPL: spongyl layer) "

Figure 5

Transverse section showing leaf lamina. (a) K. senegalensis, (b) K. grandifoliola, (c) K. ivorensis (EPL: epidermal layer, MEL: mesophyll layer, VB: vascular bundle, PAL: palisade layer, SPL: spongyl layer, CTLE: cuticle, GR: grove) "

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