Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2018, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (5): 421-427.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00421

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of slow-release iron fertilizer on iron-deficiency chlorosis, yield and quality of Lilium davidii var. unicolor in a two-year field experiment

Yang Qiu,ZhongKui Xie*(),XinPing Wang,YaJun Wang,YuBao Zhang,YuHui He,WenMei Li,WenCong Lv   

  1. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2018-04-17 Accepted:2018-06-13 Online:2018-11-19 Published:2018-11-21
  • Contact: ZhongKui Xie
  • Supported by:
    This research was supported by China's National Natural Science Foundation (No. 41501043), by the "West Light" project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and by the project of 60th Chinese postdoctorate science fund (No. 2016M602904).


Iron deficiency chlorosis of Lilium davidii var. unicolor is often the case in practice in alkaline soils of northwest region of China. It is difficult to control iron chlorosis because of high cost and short effective work time of conventional iron fertilizers. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two slow-release fertilizers on the suppression of iron deficiency chlorosis, soil chemical properties, and the yield and quality of L. davidii var. unicolor. Results show that both coated slow-release iron fertilizers and embedded slow-release iron fertilizer effectively controlled iron-deficiency chlorosis. The application of slow-release iron fertilizers significantly increased plant height and chlorophyll content of L. davidii var. unicolor at different growth stages. Furthermore, coated iron fertilizer application significantly increased starch, protein, soluble sugar and vitamin C content of L. davidii var. unicolor, and it also significantly improved total amino acid content, with increases in essential amino acids (Trp, Leu, Lys, Phe, Val, and Thr contents) and in nonessential amino acids (Asp, Glu, Cit, Ihs, Acc, Ala, Pro, and Cys contents). It was concluded that application of coated slow-release iron fertilizer could be a promising option for suppression of iron deficiency chlorosis and deserves further study.

Key words: slow-release fertilizer, iron-deficiency chlorosis, Lilium davidii var. unicolor, long-term

Table 1

Initial soil properties of the 0–40 cm soil layer of the experimental site"

Soil properties Value
pH 8.3
Total carbon (g/kg) 9.4
Total nitrogen (g/kg) 0.77
Total phosphorus (g/kg) 0.77
Available phosphorus (mg/kg) 20.16
Sand (g/kg) 123.2
Silt (g/kg) 669.1
Clay (g/kg) 208.7
CaCO3(g/kg) 133.7
Fe (%) 2.92
Mn (%) 0.071
Zn (%) 0.012

Table 2

Selected soil chemical properties from different treatments in 2016 after harvest"

Treatment pH TC (mg/kg) TN (mg/kg) TP (mg/kg) AP (mg/kg) Fe (%)
A 8.8a 9.2a 0.78a 1.04a 32.21a 3.31a
B 8.6a 9.2a 0.76a 0.98a 19.82b 3.24a
C 8.6a 9.0a 0.79a 0.99a 20.99b 3.10a
D 8.9a 8.9a 0.80a 0.95a 21.42b 3.11a

Table 3

Changes of efficient iron in soils at several stages of growth"

Time A (mg/kg) B (mg/kg) C (mg/kg) D (mg/kg)
Seeding stage 15.43a 32.62b 45.89c 8.75d
Budding stage 22.27a 19.89a 14.23b 10.17c
Flowering stage 24.87a 14.15b 12.19b 11.84b

Figure 1

Changes in plant height of Lilium davidii var. unicolor in various treatments at three stages of growth. Values of a parameter followed by a different letter indicate a significant difference between treatments (p <0.05) "

Figure 2

Changes in chlorophyll content of Lilium davidii var. unicolor in various treatments at three stages of growth. Values of a parameter followed by a different letter indicate a significant difference between treatments (p <0.05) "

Table 4

Effect of different treatments on iron-deficiency chlorosis at the flowering stage"

Treatment Rate of iron-deficiency chlorosis in 2015 Rate of iron-deficiency chlorosis in 2016
A 6.81% 5.42%
B 2.91% 2.50%
C 12.25% 11.42%
D 15.83% 17.92%

Table 5

Yields of Lilium davidii var. unicolor in different treatments after two years of growth "

Item Treatments
Biennial lily yield (kg/hm2) 9,312.35±694.34 10,392.30±519.24 8,517.18±375.98 8,072.72±232.73
Increase over D (%) 15.36 28.73 5.51

Table 6

Nutrient quality of Lilium davidii var. unicolor from different treatments "

Treatment Starch
(mg/g FW)
(mg/g FW)
(mg/g FW)
Soluble sugar
(mg/g FW)
Reducing sugar
(mg/g FW)
(nmol/g FW)
A 149 a 485 a 151 a 159 a 55.54 a 309.7 a
B 145 a 518 a 158 a 180 b 55.68 a 350.6 b
C 135 b 500 a 139 c 161 a 55.12 a 302.2 a
D 130 b 502 a 134 c 150 c 56.22 a 300.1 a

Table 7

Effect of different treatments on amino acids"

Amino acid Treatments
EAA Trp 42.52a 45.36a 35.59b 37.55b
Leu 1,440.23a 1,636.32b 1,482.31a 1,412.85a
Lys 688.63a 740.62b 665.72a 625.11c
Ile 168.36a 175.31b 162.62a 174.23b
Phe 560.49a 596.32b 564.38a 549.38a
Met 250.33a 285.96b 241.98a 280.63b
Val 535.22a 576.64b 532.42a 540.38a
TEAA Thr 641.43a 632.15a 602.39b 609.65b
4,327.21a 4,688.68b 4,287.41ac 4,229.78c
Asp 1,915.98a 1,735.68b 1,711.52b 1,700.63b
NEAA Glu 5,623.32a 6,302.41b 5,233.67a 4,681.19c
Cit 81.57a 101.39b 82.53a 80.43a
Ser 625.88a 795.56b 688.16a 779.17b
Gly 538.74a 689.92b 665.22b 667.54b
His 180.5a 250.16b 170.31a 170.57a
Can 18.77a 14.56b 15.27b 16.03c
Arg 537.81a 624.02b 558.13a 600.15b
Acc 684.39a 582.51b 410.09c 339.47d
Ala 412.05a 470.81b 422.36a 438.44a
TNEAA Pro 1,101.76a 1,873.12b 1,074.28a 1,056.99a
Tyr 208.45a 274.37b 259.24b 291.43c
Cys 76.68a 103.34b 75.73a 76.93a
16,342.9a 18,506.53b 15,645.92c 15,128.75c
1 AFNOR, 2004. Évaluation de la qualité des sols, volume 1: méthodes d'analyse chimique. La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex: Association Française de Normalisation.
2 Broadley MR, White PJ, Hammond JP, et al. Zinc in plants. New Phytologist 2007; 173: 4 677- 702.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.01996.x
3 Christin H, Petty P, Ouertani K, et al. Influence of iron, potassium, magnesium, and nitrogen deficiencies on the growth and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings . Journal of Biotech Research 2009; 1: 3 64- 71.
4 Goos RJ, Johnson B, Jackson G, et al. Greenhouse evaluation of controlled-release iron fertilizers for Soybean. Journal of Plant Nutrition 2004; 27: 1 43- 55.
doi: 10.1081/PLN-120027546
5 Jolley VD, Cook KA, Hansen NC, et al. Plant physiological responses for genotypic evaluation of iron efficiency in strategy I and strategy II plants-a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition 1996; 19: 8-9 1245- 1255.
doi: 10.1080/01904169609365195
6 Kong XW, 1958. Message of Lanzhou-plant. Lanzhou: Gansu Republic Press, pp. 220–221.
7 Li GX Pharmacological effect of Lily (Liliumlancifolium). Journal of Chinese Medicinal Material 1990; 3: 31.
8 Liu JC, Fu LJ, 1999. Lilium Davidii Var. Unicolor and Its Cultivation. Lanzhou: Gansu Science Press, pp. 2–9.
9 Liu WJ, Yu H, Ren LH, et al. Study on the relationship between nutritional ingredient and taste quality of sweetpotato varieties. Science and Technology of Food Industry 2014; 35: 12 91- 95.
doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2014.12.010
10 Öborn I, Jansson G, Johnsson L A field study on the influence of soil pH on trace element levels in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and carrots (Daucus carota) . Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 1995; 85: 2 835- 840.
doi: 10.1007/BF00476933
11 Tian CL, Jie XL, Liu Y, et al. Effects of Se-Zn and fulvic acid combined application on nutrient component and amino acids formation of alfalfa. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 2014; 23: 2 66- 75.
12 Walkley A, Black IA An examination of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sciences 1934; 37: 1 29- 38.
doi: 10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003
13 Wang F, Qiao L, Zhang QQ, et al. Amino acid composition and nutritional evaluation of mulberry leaves. Food Science 2015; 36: 1 225- 228.
doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201501043
14 Yang H, Li YJ, Wang CL, et al. Correlation and regression analysis of taste evaluation and nutrient components in Squash. China Vegetables 2016; 11 25- 32.
15 Yu Q, Qi WH, Yu Y, et al. Study on the healthcare function of Vitamin C. Heilongjiang Medicine Journal 2008; 21: 24- 26.
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2882.2008.06.014
16 Zhou QQ Development present situation and the countermeasures of Lilium davidii var. unicolor industry . Gansu Agricultural Sciences and Technology 2016; 1 64- 66.
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-1463.2016.01.021
17 Zhu GL, Bi J, Xia GL, et al. Effects of different slow-release fertilizers on cucumbers' yield, quality and nutrient use efficiency. Soil and Fertilizer Sciences in China 2013; 1 68- 73.
[1] CuiPing Hua, YaJun Wang, ZhongKui Xie, ZhiHong Guo, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu, Le Wang. Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) [J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(2): 159-168.
Full text



[1] Mohan Bahadur Chand,Rijan Bhakta Kayastha. Study of thermal properties of supraglacial debris and degree-day factors on Lirung Glacier, Nepal[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 357 -368 .
[2] AiHong Xie, ShiMeng Wang, YiCheng Wang, ChuanJin Li. Comparison of temperature extremes between Zhongshan Station and Great Wall Station in Antarctica[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 369 -378 .
[3] YanZai Wang, YongQiu Wu, MeiHui Pan, RuiJie Lu. Comparison of two classification methods to identify grain size fractions of aeolian sediment[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 413 -420 .
[4] YinHuan Ao, ShiHua Lyu, ZhaoGuo Li, LiJuan Wen, Lin Zhao. Numerical simulation of the climate effect of high-altitude lakes on the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 379 -391 .
[5] Zhuo Ga, Za Dui, Duodian Luozhu, Jun Du. Comparison of precipitation products to observations in Tibet during the rainy season[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 392 -403 .
[6] Rong Yang, JunQia Kong, ZeYu Du, YongZhong Su. Altitude pattern of carbon stocks in desert grasslands of an arid land region[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 404 -412 .
[7] Ololade A. Oyedapo,Joseph M. Agbedahunsi,H. C Illoh,Akinwumi J. Akinloye. Comparative foliar anatomy of three Khaya species (Meliaceae) used in Nigeria as antisickling agent[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(4): 279 -285 .
[8] YuMing Wei, XiaoFei Ma, PengShan Zhao. Transcriptomic comparison to identify rapidly evolving genes in Braya humilis[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 428 -435 .
[9] FangLei Zhong, AiJun Guo, XiaoJuan Yin, JinFeng Cui, Xiao Yang, YanQiong Zhang. Sociodemographic characteristics, cultural biases, and environmental attitudes: An empirical application of grid-group cultural theory in Northwestern China[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(5): 436 -446 .
[10] Yong Chen,Tao Wang,LiHua Zhou,Rui Wang. Industrialization model of enterprises participating in ecological management and suggestions: A case study of the Hobq Model in Inner Mongolia[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2018, 10(4): 286 -292 .