Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2022, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (3): 212-222.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21056.

Previous Articles    

Decomposition effects of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) flowers on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial community diversity

Jie Li1,2,YaJun Wang1(),Yang Qiu1,ZhongKui Xie1,YuBao Zhang1,CuiPing Hua1,2   

  1. 1.Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-06-15 Accepted:2021-12-27 Online:2022-06-30 Published:2022-07-04
  • Contact: YaJun Wang
  • Supported by:
    Major Special Science & Technology Project of Gansu Province(Y839C01001)


Timely removal of the flower is a key agricultural measure to ensure the concentrated supply of nutrients for the growth of underground bulbs and to increase the yield of lilies. Removing flowers and returning them to the field is one of the traditional ways of treatment, and field litter is formed at this time. Previous study showed that the decomposition of litter changes the soil properties. In order to study the effects of lily litter decomposition on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial structure, three treatments were set up in reference to the Decomposition Bag Method: control (CK), Lanzhou lily flower treatment (LZF), and Zhongbai No.1 flower treatment (ZBF). The effects of lily decomposition on soil physical and chemical properties and microbial community composition were studied in order to provide a scientific basis and theoretical guidance for the planting process of Lanzhou lily. The results show that the decomposition of lily flowers significantly increased the contents of soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, soil total phosphorus and soil available potassium, and decreased soil pH. RDA shows that soil available nutrients and pH were the driving factors for the change of the soil microbial community. A short-term change of soil microenvironment caused by the decomposed lily flower is beneficial to growing the Lanzhou lily. However, under the correlation analysis of environmental factors, the long-term effects of returning the Lanzhou lily flower to the field, such as the trend of soil acidification, need to be further studied.

Key words: removing flower, litter decomposition, soil physicochemical properties, microbial diversity

Table 1

Effects of Lanzhou lily flower decomposition on soil physicochemical properties"

TreatmentSoil physicochemical properties
OM (g/kg)TN (g/kg)TC (g/kg)TP (g/kg)AN (mg/kg)AP (mg/kg)AK (mg/kg)pHECC/N







8.81±0.20a333.00± 70.19b22.71±0.67a















Table 2

Illuminahiseq Reads, OTUs and α diversity of soil samples"

TaxonSampleReadsOTUsAlpha diversityCoverage

Figure 1

Relative abundance of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities in different treatments at phylum level"

Figure 2

Abundance difference of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) at phylum level"

Figure 3

Relative grading of (a) and fungal (b) of the first 10 species of bacteria at genus level"

Figure 4

Redundancy Analysis (RDA) of population distribution and environmental factors of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) at phylum level"

An LZ, Zou B, Ding Y, et al., 2004. Key factors of forest litter decomposition and research progress. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 06: 77-83. DOI: CNKI:SUN:STXZ.0.2004-06-016 .
doi: CNKI:SUN:STXZ.0.2004-06-016
Andersson M, KjLler A, Struwe S, 2004. Microbial enzyme activities in leaf litter, humus and mineral soil layers of European forests. Soil Biology & Biochemistry,10(36): 1527-1537. DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.018 .
doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.018
Batish DR, Singh HP, Pandher JK, et al., 2010. Phytotoxic effect of Parthenium residues on the selected soil properties and growth of chickpea and radish. Weed Biology & Management, 2(2): 73-78. DOI: 10.1046/j.1445-6664.2002. 00050.x .
doi: 10.1046/j.1445-6664.2002. 00050.x
Bian XR, Shi GY, Liang QL, et al., 2016. Isolation and identification of wilt disease pathogen from Lanzhou lily and its pathogenicity. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 4(51): 58-64. DOI: 10.13432/j.cnki.jgsau.2016.04.010 .
doi: 10.13432/j.cnki.jgsau.2016.04.010
Bocock KL, Gilbert O, 1957. The disappearance of leaf litter under different woodland conditions. Plant & Soil, 2(9): 179-185. DOI: 10.1007/BF01398924 .
doi: 10.1007/BF01398924
Bonfante P, Venice F, 2020. Mucoromycota: going to the roots of plant-interacting fungi. Fungal Biology Reviews, 2(34): 100-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.fbr.2019.12.003 .
doi: 10.1016/j.fbr.2019.12.003
Chapin FS, Matson PA, Mooney HA, 2011. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Springer.
Chen JL, Sun HQ, Fan SF, et al., 2016. Effect of root exudates from Lanzhou lily on allelopathy of lily seedlings. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 6(51): 64-69.
Chen LD, 2009. Effect of different bud picking time on Lily bulb yield. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, 15: 73-75.
Edgar RC, 2013. UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nature Methods, 10(10): 996. DOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2604 .
doi: 10.1038/NMETH.2604
Gao YY, Weiguo C, Jindi Z, et al., 1990. Experimental study on increasing yield of Lilium davidii by removing flowers. Gansu Agricultural Science and Technology, 10: 14-16. DOI: CNKI: SUN: GSNK.0.1990-10-006 .
doi: CNKI: SUN: GSNK.0.1990-10-006
Geng Q, 2014. A Study on Leaf Litter Decomposition in Ginkgo biloba Agroforestry Systems. Nanjing Forestry University. .
Guo ZL, Zheng JP, Ma YD, et al., 2006. Researches on litterfall decomposition rates and model simulating of main species in various forest vegetations of Changbai Mountains, China. Acta Ecological Sinica, 4(26): 1037-1046. DOI: 10. 3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.04.009 .
doi: 10. 3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.04.009
Haas BJ, Gevers D, Earl AM, et al., 2011. Chimeric 16S rRNA sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons. Genome Research, 3(21): 494-504. DOI: 10.1101/gr.112730.110 .
doi: 10.1101/gr.112730.110
He MH, He YJ, Wu CY, et al., 2019. Effects of rocky desertification intensity on soil fungal composition and diversity during karst vegetation succession. Mycosystema, 4(38): 471-484.
Hua CP, Wang YJ, Xie ZK, et al., 2018. Effects of intercropping on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 10(2): 159-168. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159 .
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00159
Jia BR, 2019. Litter decomposition and its underlying mechanisms. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 43(8): 648-657. DOI:10.17521/cjpe.2019.0097 .
doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0097
Li HT, Yu GR, Li JY, et al., 2007. Decomposition dynamics and nutrient release of litters for four artificial forests in the red soil and hilly region of subtropical China, Acta Ecological Sinica. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2007.03.009 .
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2007.03.009
Li SS, Wang ZW, Yang JJ, 2016. Changes in soil microbial communities during litter decomposition. Biodiversity Science, 2(24): 195-204. DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015149 .
doi: 10.17520/biods.2015149
Lin B, Liu Q, Wu Y, et al., 2004. Advances in the studies of forest litter. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 23(1): 60-64. DOI: CNKI: SUN: STXZ.0.2004-01-013 .
doi: CNKI: SUN: STXZ.0.2004-01-013
Lü WC, Qiu Y, Xie Z, et al., 2019. Gravel mulching effects on soil physicochemical properties and microbial community composition in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China. European Journal of Soil Biology, 94: 103-115. DOI: 10. 1016/j.ejsobi.2019.103115 .
doi: 10. 1016/j.ejsobi.2019.103115
Magoč T, Salzberg SL, 2011. FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies. Bioinformatics, 27(21): 2957-2963. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr507 .
doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr507
Melin E, 1930. Biological decomposition of some types of litter from North American Forests. Ecology, 1(11): 72-101. DOI: 10.2307/1930782 .
doi: 10.2307/1930782
Mo JM, Kong GH, Brown S, 2001. Litterfall response to human impacts in a dinghushan pine forest. Acta Photogeological Sinica, 6(25): 656-664. DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/18/11/313 .
doi: 10.1088/0256-307X/18/11/313
Moharana PC, Sharma BM, Biswas DR, et al., 2012. Long-term effect of nutrient management on soil fertility and soil organic carbon pools under a 6-year-old pearl millet-wheat cropping system in an Inceptisol of subtropical India. Field Crops Research, (136): 32-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2012. 07.002 .
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2012. 07.002
Purahong W, Wubet T, Lentendu G, et al., 2016. Life in leaf litter: novel insights into community dynamics of bacteria and fungi during litter decomposition. Molecular Ecology, 25(16): 4059-4074. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13739 .
doi: 10.1111/mec.13739
Qiu Y, Lv WC, Wang XP, et al., 2020. Long-term effects of gravel mulching and straw mulching on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial and fungal community composition in the Loess Plateau of China. European Journal of Soil Biology, 98: 103188. DOI: .
doi: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2020.103188
Qiu Y, Xie Z, Wang X, et al., 2018. Effect of slow-release iron fertilizer on iron-deficiency chlorosis, yield and quality of Lilium davidii var. unicolor in a two-year field experiment. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 5(10): 421-427. DOI: CNKI: SUN: HAQK.0.2018-05-008 .
doi: CNKI: SUN: HAQK.0.2018-05-008
Quast C, Pruesse E, Yilmaz P, et al., 2012. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: Improved data processing and web-based tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 41(D1): 590-596. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1219 .
doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1219
Shang Q, Yang G, Wang Y, et al., 2016. Illumina-based analysis of the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants grown in the field. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 6(32): 1-15. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-016-2051-2 .
doi: 10.1007/s11274-016-2051-2
Shen Y, 2010. Responses of Litter Production Decomposition in Wheat Cultivars to Soil Nutrients in Their Habitats. Henan Agricultural University. DOI:
Southwest AU, 1980. Southern Edition of Soil Science (2nd Edition): China Agriculture Press.
Sun X, Long G, Zhang G, et al., 2015. Properties of soil physical-chemistry and activities of soil enzymes in context of continuous cropping obstacles for panax notoginseng. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 3(24): 409-417. DOI: 10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2015.03.007 .
doi: 10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2015.03.007
Swift MJ, Heal OW, Anderson JM, 1979. Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Studies in Ecology, 14(5): 2772-2774. DOI: 10.1063/1.1615673 .
doi: 10.1063/1.1615673
Tenney FG, Waksman SA, 1929. Composition of natural organic materials and their decomposition in the soil: IV. the nature and rapidity of decomposition of the various organic complexes in different plant materials, under aerobic conditions. Soil Science, 1(28): 55. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192907000-00005 .
doi: 10.1097/00010694-192907000-00005
Wang FY, 1989. Review on the study of forest litterfall. Advances in Ecology, 2(6): 82-89.
Wang Q, 2007. Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (73): 5261-5267. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00062-07 .
doi: 10.1128/AEM.00062-07
Wang SL, 2010. Forest litter ecology. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 04(18): 757.
Wang SL, Wang MX, 2002. The several thoughts and suggestions to the industrial development of Lanzhou-lily bulb. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 1(37): 82-81. DOI: 10.1007/s11769-002-0038-4 .
doi: 10.1007/s11769-002-0038-4
Wang SQ, Yu GR, 2008. Ecological stoichiometry characteristics of ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus elements. Acta Ecological Sinica, 8: 3937-3947. DOI: 10. 3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2008.08.054 .
doi: 10. 3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2008.08.054
Wang X, 2012. Studies on the Litter Decomposition Characteristic of Larix Princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. Plantation in Yanshan Mountainous Regions. Hebei Agricultural University. DOI:
Wang YF, 2013. The influence of litter mixing on decomposition and soil fauna assemblages in a Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest of the Changbai Mountains, China. European Journal of Soil Biology, (55): 28-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2012.11.004 .
doi: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2012.11.004
Wang YY, Guo DF, 2016. Fungal diversity of saline alkali soil in Yellow River delta. Northern Horticulture, 18: 185-189.
Wu ZJ, Liu Y, Ruoyu W, et al., 2015. In vitro study of the growth, development and pathogenicity responses of Fusarium oxysporum to phthalic acid, an autotoxin from Lanzhou lily. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 1227-1234. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-015-1872-8 .
doi: 10.1007/s11274-015-1872-8
Wu ZJ, Xie ZK, Yang L, et al., 2015. Identification of autotoxins from root exudates of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). Allelopathy Journal, 1(35): 35-48.
Xu Q, Qian X, Gui Z, 1998. Effects of litter decomposition of different stands on soil properties. Journal of Zhe-jiang Forestry College, 1: 29-33.
Ye RH, Shan YM, Zhang PJ, et al., 2020. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on litter decomposition in desert grassland under different grazing intensities. Acta Ecological Sinica, 8(40): 2775-2783. DOI: 10.5846/stxb201902110245 .
doi: 10.5846/stxb201902110245
Yu M, Wo Y, Gen C, et al., 2004. Agrochemical characteristics of soil for continuous cropping Lily. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 3: 377-379.
Yue KX, Gong JR, Yu SY, et al., 2020. Effects of litter quality and soil enzyme activity on litter decomposition rate in typical grassland subject to nitrogen addition. Acta Protoculture Sinica, 6(29): 71-82. DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2019417
doi: 10.11686/cyxb2019417
Zhang J, 2015. Microbial Diversity of Soil Infected by Meloidogyne Spp. Yunnan University. DOI:
Zhang Q, Song Y, You W, 1999. Dynamics of litter amount and its decomposition in different successional stages of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang province. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 3: 59-64.
Zhang Y, Wang Y, Xie Z, et al., 2018. The occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting Lanzhou lily in northwest, China. Crop Protection, 110: 73-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro. 2018.02.028 .
doi: 10.1016/j.cropro. 2018.02.028
Zhao XY, Cui JY, Zhang TH, 1999. Estimation and dynamic modeling of wheat litter production in decertified arable land in Horqin Sandy Land. Journal of Desert Research, 19(3): 103-106. DOI: CNKI: SUN: ZGSS.0.1999-S1-023 .
doi: CNKI: SUN: ZGSS.0.1999-S1-023
Zhao YY, Xie ZK, Hu BA, et al., 2018. Production status and benefits analysis of Lanzhou Lily. China Vegetables, 2: 71-75.
Zheng LY, Hu JF, Lin CH, et al., 2005. The production of succession cropping obstacles and its prevention and cure steps. Chinese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 2(5): 58-62. DOI: CNKI:SUN:RDNK.0.2005-02-015 .
doi: CNKI:SUN:RDNK.0.2005-02-015
No related articles found!
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!