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1. Discussion on pile axial load test methods and their applicability in cold regions
JiaWei Gao,Ji Chen,Xin Hou,QiHang Mei,YongHeng Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 267-281.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.005.
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The measurement of pile axial load is of great significance to determining pile foundation design parameters such as skin friction and end bearing capacity and analyzing load transfer mechanisms. Affected by the temperature and ice content of frozen ground, the interface contact relationship between pile foundation and frozen soil is complicated, making pile axial load measurements more uncertain than that in non-frozen ground. Therefore, it is necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of the current pile axial load test methods. Four methods are systematically reviewed: vibrating wire sensors, strain gauges, sliding micrometers, and optical fiber strain sensors. At the same time, the applicability of the four test methods in frozen soil regions is discussed in detail. The first two methods are mature and commonly used. The sliding micrometer is only suitable for short-term measurement. While the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain gauge meets the monitoring requirements, the Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer (BOTDR) needs further verification. This paper aims to provide a technical reference for selecting and applying different methods in the pile axial load test for the stability study and bearing capacity assessment of pile foundations in cold regions.

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2. A review of the interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere
YongJian Ding,JianPing Yang,ShengXia Wang,YaPing Chang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 329-342.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00329
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The interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere is an essential and extremely sensitive mutual action process on the earth. Due to global warming and the cryospheric melting, more and more attention has been paid to the interaction process between the cryosphere and atmosphere, especially the feedback of the cryosphere change to the atmosphere. A comprehensive review of the studies on the interaction between the cryosphere and atmosphere is conducted from two aspects: (1) effects of climate change on the cryosphere or responses of the cryosphere to climate change; and (2) feedback of the cryosphere change to the climate. The response of the cryosphere to climate change is lagging. Such a lagging and cumulative effect of temperature rise within the cryosphere have resulted in a rapid change in the cryosphere in the 21st century, and its impacts have become more significant. The feedback from cryosphere change on the climate are omnifarious. Among them, the effects of sea ice loss and snow cover change, especially the Arctic sea ice loss and the Northern Hemisphere snow cover change, are the most prominent. The Arctic amplification (AA) associated with sea ice feedback is disturbing , and the feedback generated by the effect of temperature rise on snow properties in the Northern Hemisphere is also of great concern. There are growing evidence of the impact of the Arctic cryosphere melting on mid-latitude weather and climate. Weakened storm troughs, steered jet stream and amplified planetary waves associated with energy propagation become the key to explaining the links between Arctic cryosphere change and atmospheric circulation. There is still a great deal of uncertainty about how cryosphere change affects the weather and climate through different atmospheric circulation processes at different spatial and temporal scales due to observation and simulation problems.

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3. A concise overview on historical black carbon in ice cores and remote lake sediments in the northern hemisphere
Poonam Thapa,JianZhong Xu,Bigyan Neupane
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (3): 179-194.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20055.
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Black Carbon (BC), as a driver of environmental change, could significantly impact the snow by accelerating melting and decreasing albedo. Systematic documentation of BC studies is crucial for a better understanding of its spatial and temporal trends. This study reviewed the BC studies in the ice core and remote lake sediments and their sources in the northern hemisphere. The literature surveyed points to around 2.9 to 3.7 times increase of BC in the European Alps and up to a three-fold increase of BC in the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP) after the onset of industrialization in Europe and Asia, respectively. BC concentration from Greenland ice core showed seven times increase with an interrupted trend after 1950's. South Asian emissions were dominant in the HTP along with a contribution from the Middle East, whereas Western European and local emissions were responsible for the change in BC concentration in the European Alps. In the Arctic, contributions from North America, Europe and Asia persisted. Similarly, a historical reconstruction of lake sediments records demonstrates the effects of emissions from long-range transport, sediment focusing, local anthropogenic activities, precipitation and total input of flux on the BC concentration.

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4. Light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan: concentrations and potential impact on albedo reduction
YuLan Zhang, ShiChang Kang, Min Xu, Michael Sprenger, TanGuang Gao, ZhiYuan Cong, ChaoLiu Li, JunMing Guo, ZhiQiang Xu, Yang Li, Gang Li, XiaoFei Li, YaJun Liu, HaiDong Han
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (2): 97-111.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00097
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Light-absorbing impurities on glaciers are important factors that influence glacial surface albedo and accelerate glacier melt. In this study, the quantity of light-absorbing impurities on Keqikaer Glacier in western Tien Shan, Central Asia, was measured. We found that the average concentrations of black carbon was 2,180 ng/g, with a range from 250 ng/g to more than 10,000 ng/g. The average concentrations of organic carbon and mineral dust were 1,738 ng/g and 194 μg/g, respectively. Based on simulations performed with the Snow Ice Aerosol Radiative model simulations, black carbon and dust are responsible for approximately 64% and 9%, respectively, of the albedo reduction, and are associated with instantaneous radiative forcing of 323.18 W/m2 (ranging from 142.16 to 619.25 W/m2) and 24.05 W/m2 (ranging from 0.15 to 69.77 W/m2), respectively. For different scenarios, the albedo and radiative forcing effect of black carbon is considerably greater than that of dust. The estimated radiative forcing at Keqikaer Glacier is higher than most similar values estimated by previous studies on the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps as a result of black carbon enrichment by melt scavenging. Light-absorbing impurities deposited on Keqikaer Glacier appear to mainly originate from central Asia, Siberia, western China (including the Taklimakan Desert) and parts of South Asia in summer, and from the Middle East and Central Asia in winter. A footprint analysis indicates that a large fraction (>60%) of the black carbon contributions on Keqikaer Glacier comes from anthropogenic sources. These results provide a scientific basis for regional mitigation efforts to reduce black carbon.
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5. Simulation and prediction of monthly accumulated runoff, based on several neural network models under poor data availability
JianPing Qian,JianPing Zhao,Yi Liu,XinLong Feng,DongWei Gui
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 468-481.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00468
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Most previous research on areas with abundant rainfall shows that simulations using rainfall-runoff modes have a very high prediction accuracy and applicability when using a back-propagation (BP), feed-forward, multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN). However, in runoff areas with relatively low rainfall or a dry climate, more studies are needed. In these areas—of which oasis-plain areas are a particularly good example—the existence and development of runoff depends largely on that which is generated from alpine regions. Quantitative analysis of the uncertainty of runoff simulation under climate change is the key to improving the utilization and management of water resources in arid areas. Therefore, in this context, three kinds of BP feed-forward, three-layer ANNs with similar structure were chosen as models in this paper. Taking the oasis–plain region traverse by the Qira River Basin in Xinjiang, China, as the research area, the monthly accumulated runoff of the Qira River in the next month was simulated and predicted. The results showed that the training precision of a compact wavelet neural network is low; but from the forecasting results, it could be concluded that the training algorithm can better reflect the whole law of samples. The traditional artificial neural network (TANN) model and radial basis-function neural network (RBFNN) model showed higher accuracy in the training and prediction stage. However, the TANN model, more sensitive to the selection of input variables, requires a large number of numerical simulations to determine the appropriate input variables and the number of hidden-layer neurons. Hence, The RBFNN model is more suitable for the study of such problems. And it can be extended to other similar research arid-oasis areas on the southern edge of the Kunlun Mountains and provides a reference for sustainable water-resource management of arid-oasis areas.

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6. Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications
BaiCui Xu,JingHu Pan
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 389-406.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00389.
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Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areas—areas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

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7. Seasonal variation of airborne fungi of the Tiantishan Grottoes and Western Xia Museum, Wuwei, China
YuLong Duan,FaSi Wu,DongPeng He,RuiHong Xu,HuYuan Feng,Tuo Chen,GuangXiu Liu,WanFu Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (6): 522-532.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20102
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In this study, a systematic survey of cultural airborne fungi was carried out in the occurrence environments of wall paintings that are preserved in the Tiantishan Grottoes and the Western Xia Museum, China. A bio-aerosol sampler was used for sampling in four seasons in 2016. Culture-dependent and -independent methods were taken to acquire airborne fungal concentration and purified strains; by the extraction of genomic DNA, amplification of fungal ITS rRNA gene region, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, thereafter the fungal community composition and distribution characteristics of different study sites were clarified. We disclosure the main environmental factors which may be responsible for dynamic changes of airborne fungi at the sampling sites. The concentration of cultural airborne fungi was in a range from 13 to 1,576 CFU/m3, no significant difference between the two sites at the Tiantishan Grottoes, with obvious characteristics of seasonal variation, in winter and spring were higher than in summer and autumn. Also, there was a significant difference in fungal concentration between the inside and outside of the Western Xia Museum, the outside of the museum was far more than the inside of the museum in the four seasons, particularly in the winter. Eight fungal genera were detected, including Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Filobasidium as the dominant groups. The airborne fungal community structures of the Tiantishan Grottoes show a distinct characteristic of seasonal variation and spatial distribution. Relative humidity, temperature and seasonal rainfall influence airborne fungal distribution. Some of the isolated strains have the potential to cause biodeterioration of ancient wall paintings. This study provides supporting information for the pre-warning conservation of cultural relics that are preserved at local sites and inside museums.

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8. A meta-analysis of the impacts of forest logging on soil CO2 efflux
LongFei Chen,YangZhou Xiang,ZhiBin He,Jun Du,PengFei Lin,Xi Zhu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (3): 165-179.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00165
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Soil CO2 efflux, the second largest flux in a forest carbon budget, plays an important role in global carbon cycling. Forest logging is expected to have large effects on soil CO2 efflux and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. However, a comprehensive understanding of soil CO2 efflux dynamics in response to forest logging remains elusive due to large variability in results obtained across individual studies. Here, we used a meta-analysis approach to synthesize the results of 77 individual field studies to determine the impacts of forest logging on soil CO2 efflux. Our results reveal that forest logging significantly stimulated soil CO2 efflux of the growing season by 5.02%. However, averaged across all studies, non-significant effect was detected following forest logging. The large variation among forest logging impacts was best explained by forest type, logging type, and time since logging. Soil CO2 efflux in coniferous forests exhibited a significant increase (4.38%) due to forest logging, while mixed and hardwood forests showed no significant change. Logging type also had a significant effect on soil CO2 efflux, with thinning increasing soil CO2 efflux by 12.05%, while clear-cutting decreasing soil CO2 efflux by 8.63%. The time since logging also had variable effects, with higher soil CO2 efflux for 2 years after logging, and lower for 3-6 years after logging; when exceeded 6 years, soil CO2 efflux increased. As significantly negative impacts of forest logging were detected on fine root biomass, the general positive effects on soil CO2 efflux can be explained by the accelerated decomposition of organic matter as a result of elevated soil temperature and organic substrate quality. Our results demonstrate that forest logging had potentially negative effects on carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems.

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9. Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth
Gideon O. Okunlola, Richard O. Akinwale, Adekunle A. Adelusi
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (3): 205-211.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00205
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Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics.This study was conducted to investigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative,flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species.Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq.,C.annuum L.and C.frutescens L.were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates,25 days after planting.Four water treatments,200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1),once in every three days (W2),once in every five days (W3),and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative,flowering,and fruiting growth stages.Data were collected on relative water content,free proline and total soluble sugar.Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.
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10. Geographic range size patterns across plants and animals of Xinjiang, China
LiPing Li,ChunYan Zhang,Eimear Nic Lughadha,Tarciso C. C. Leão,Kate Hardwick,YaoMin Zheng,HuaWei Wan,Ming Ma,Nurbay Abudusalih,Hai Ying,Pu Zhen,JiangShan Lai,ZhanFeng Shen,Liu Li,Tuo Wang,YangMing Jiang,HuiHui Zhao,QingJie Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (1): 54-67.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21004.
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Patterns in species geographic range size are relatively well-known for vertebrates, but still poorly known for plants. Contrasts of these patterns between groups have rarely been investigated. With a detailed flora and fauna distribution database of Xinjiang, China, we used regression methods, redundancy analysis and random forests to explore the relationship of environment and body size with the geographic range size of plants, mammals and birds in Xinjiang and contrast these patterns between plants and animals. We found positive correlations between species range size and body size. The range size of plants was more influenced by water variables, while that of mammals and birds was largely influenced by temperature variables. The productivity variable, i.e., Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was far more correlated with range size than climatic variables for both plants and animals, suggesting that vegetation productivity inferred from remote sensing data may be a good predictor of species range size for both plants and animals.

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11. A review on the ambit and prospects of C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria
Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao, Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Sefiu Adekilekun Saheed
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (6): 587-598.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00587
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Despite the enormous applications of photosynthesis in global carbon budget and food security, photosynthesis research has not been adequately explored as a research focus in Nigeria. Previous works on C3 and C4 plants in Nigeria were mainly on the use of anatomical characteristics to delimit plant species into their respective pathways, with no attention being paid to its applications. In this review, past and present knowledge gaps in this area of study are elucidated. Information used in this review were sourced from referred research articles and books in reputable journals. The results revealed that C3 and C4 plants are distributed among 21 genera and 11 families in Nigeria. In addition there is dearth of informatio such that only three genera have been classified based on diverse photosynthetic pathways with no information found on the physiological and biochemical characterization of these genera. Moreover, further research is also suggested for tackling new challenges in the area of food productivity and climate change.
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12. Biological improvement of saline alkali soil reference system: A review
XueQin Wang,Xu Xing,FengJu Zhang,Kong Xin
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 516-521.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00000
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This work presents a reference system overview to improve the efficiency of biological improvement of saline-alkali soil developed during the last thirty years, ranging from connotation, general methods and species, soil desalination, soil structure, soil organic content, microbial flora, enzyme activity, yield and economic benefits. The reference system presented is divided into three main groups: suitable varieties, suitable cultivation measures, and a comprehensive evaluation system. There has been a lot of research on biological improvement of saline alkali soil, but these studies are very fragmented and lack a comprehensive standard system. Also, there is a lack of practical significance, particularly with regard to optimal species, densities and times of sowing for particular regions. On the other hand, the corresponding cultivation measure is very important. Therefore, a reference system plays an important role to the effect of biological improvement of saline alkali soil.

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13. Characteristics of total suspended particulates in the atmosphere of Yulong Snow Mountain, southwestern China
HeWen Niu, XiaoFei Shi, Gang Li, JunHua Yang, ShiJin Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (3): 207-218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00207
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The measurement of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), dust in total suspended particulates (TSP) was carried out at Yulong Snow Mountain (Mt. Yulong) and Ganhaizi Basin, in the Mt. Yulong region, southwestern China. TSP samples were analyzed using a thermal/optical reflectance carbon analyzer. Results show that average BC and OC concentrations in TSP in the Mt. Yulong region were 1.61±1.15 μg/m3 and 2.96±1.59 μg/m3, respectively. Statistical results demonstrated that there were significant differences in mean BC and OC contents between Ganhaizi Basin and Mt. Yulong at the 0.05 level. Strong correlations between BC and OC indicate their common dominant emission sources and transport processes. Temporal variations of BC, OC, and optical attenuation (ATN) values were consistent with each other in carbonaceous aerosols. The ratios of OC/BC in monsoon season were significantly higher than in non-monsoon in aerosols from Ganhaizi, which is closely related to the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) and extensive motor vehicle emissions from tourism activities. The temporal variations of BC, OC and ATN in carbonaceous aerosols in Ganhaizi and Mt. Yulong were totally different, probably due to elevation difference and diverse tourism activity intensity between the two sites. Time-averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the wavelength of 550 nm in Mt. Yulong was higher than that of the inland of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Source apportionment indicated that intensive exhaust emissions from tourism vehicles were the main local sources of atmospheric pollutant in the Mt. Yulong region. Biomass-burning emissions released from South Asia could penetrate into the inland of the TP under the transport of summer monsoon. Further study is needed to assess light absorption and radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols, and modeling research in combination with long-term in-situ observations of light-absorbing particulates (LAPs) in the TP is also urgently needed in future work.
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14. Analysis of water vapour flux between alpine wetlands underlying surface and atmosphere in the source region of the Yellow River
Yan Xie, Jun Wen, Rong Liu, Xin Wang, DongYu Jia
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (4): 305-316.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00305
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An underlying wetland surface comprises soil, water and vegetation and is sensitive to local climate change. Analysis of the degree of coupling between wetlands and the atmosphere and a quantitative assessment of how environmental factors influence latent heat flux have considerable scientific significance. Using data from observational tests of the Maduo Observatory of Climate and Environment of the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resource, CAS, from June 1 to August 31, 2014, this study analysed the time-varying characteristics and causes of the degree of coupling (Ω factor) between alpine wetlands underlying surface and the atmosphere and quantitatively calculated the influences of different environmental factors (solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit) on latent heat flux. The results were as follows: (1) Due to diurnal variations of solar radiation and wind speed, a trend developed where diurnal variations of the Ω factor were small in the morning and large in the evening. Due to the vegetation growing cycle, seasonal variations of the Ω factor present a reverse "U" trend. These trends are similar to the diurnal and seasonal variations of the absolute control exercised by solar radiation over latent heat flux. This conforms to the Omega Theory. (2) The values for average absolute atmospheric factor (surface factor or total) control exercised by solar radiation and water vapour pressure are 0.20 (0.02 or 0.22) and 0.005 (?0.07 or ?0.06) W/(m2·Pa), respectively. Generally speaking, solar radiation and water vapour pressure deficit exert opposite forces on latent heat flux. (3) At the underlying alpine wetland surface, solar radiation primarily influences latent heat flux through its direct effects (atmospheric factor controls). Water vapour pressure deficit primarily influences latent heat flux through its indirect effects (surface factor controls) on changing the surface resistance. (4) The average Ω factor in the underlying alpine wetland surface is high during the vegetation growing season, with a value of 0.38, and the degree of coupling between alpine wetland surface and atmosphere system is low. The actual measurements agree with the Omega Theory. The latent heat flux is mainly influenced by solar radiation.

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15. Comparative anatomical studies of Artocarpus altilis(Parkinson) Fosberg and Artocarpus communis(J. R. &G. Forster) in Nigeria
Akinwumi J. Akinloye, Temitope I. Borokini, Kehinde A. Adeniji, Funmilola M. Akinnubi
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (6): 709-721.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00709
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Comparative anatomy of two Artocarpus species was carried out to identify and describe anatomical characters in search of distinctive characters that could possibly be used to delimit the two taxa. Transverse, tangential and radial longitudinal sections and macerated samples of the stem and root wood were prepared onto microscopic slides. Epidermal peels and cleared leaves of the two species were made. Characteristic similarity disparity in the tissues arrangement as well as cell inclusions were noted for description and delimitation. The two Artocarpus species studied had essentially the same anatomical features;however, there were characters that seem to be taxon specific. The study revealed that at the transverse plane of the root, A. communis (J. R. &G. Forster) have predominantly solitary vessel, whereas pore multiple was predominant in A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. Tyloses in vessels of the root were more frequent in A. communis than in A. altilis. In the cleared leaves, venation pattern also revealed some differences in the two species. The veins of A. communis were more or less straight and that of A. altilis were undulating especially in the secondary veins. Prismatic crystals were found in the cortex of the petiole in A. communis but not in A. altilis. Similarly, tannins were found in the root bark of A. communis but not in A. altilis. Trichomes and scales were more abundant in A. communis than in A. altilis. In the transverse section of the leaves, abaxial and adaxial epidermis were uniseriate in A. communis but only the abaxial epidermis was uniseriate in A. altilis, the adaxial epidermis was made up of 2 to 3 layers of cells. The epidermal cells in A. communis were predominantly short cylindrical shaped cells but were not so in A. altilis.
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16. Wave propagation characteristics in frozen saturated soil
ChengCheng Du, DongQing Li, Feng Ming, YuHang Liu, XiangYang Shi
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (2): 95-103.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00095
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Ultrasonic detection technology is of great significance in the detection and evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of frozen soil, but wave propagation characteristics in frozen soil are unclear. Based on the three-phase composition of frozen saturated soil and the mixture theory, considering Bishop's effective stress formula, the wave propagation equations are establish for frozen saturated soil. In wave propagation, an entropy inequality was introduced to describe the coupling of different phases. The analytic expressions of propagation velocity and attenuation law of waves in frozen soil are obtained, and wave propagation characteristics in frozen saturated soil are discussed. Results show that four types of waves (i.e., P1, P2, P3 and S) are found in frozen saturated soil and all four wave types are dissipative waves, in which the attenuation of P3 is the maximum. The velocity of four waves increases sharply at the excitation frequency range of 103-109 Hz, but the wave velocity at high-frequency and low-frequency is almost constant. When volume ice content increases, the wave propagation velocity of P1 and S decreases dramatically, and the velocity of P2 increases gradually, but P3 velocity increases first and then decreases to zero with increasing saturation. The attenuation coefficients of P1 and S waves begins to increase gradually when the volume ice content is about 0.4, P2 increases first and then decreases with an increase of volume ice content and P3 increases with the volume ice content and decreases rapidly from extreme to zero.
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17. Validation of AIRS-Retrieved atmospheric temperature data over the Taklimakan Desert
YuFen Ma,RuQi Li,Men Zhang,MinZhong Wang,Mamtimin Ali
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 242-251.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00242
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The Taklimakan Desert, the world's second largest desert, plays an important role in regional climate change. Previous studies on its spatial temperature features suffered from sparse conventional detection data, but the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides excellent temperature retrievals with high spatiotemporal resolution. Validation of AIRS temperature retrievals over desert regions with high land-surface emissivity, the key contributor to inversion error, is essential before using these data in regional weather/climate modeling. This paper examines the correlation coefficients, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean BIAS between AIRS-retrieved atmospheric temperature data and radiosonde observations (RAOBs) in the Taklimakan Desert hinterland and oases in the morning and at dusk. Firstly, the AIRS retrievals are consistent with RAOBs and are more consistent in the morning than at dusk. The consistency is better over a small-scale desert oasis than over a large-scale oasis in the morning and exhibits the opposite trend at dusk. The correlation coefficient over the hinterland is high in the morning but negative at dusk due to high desert-surface emissivity. Second, the RMSEs, which are all smaller than 3 K, are generally higher over desert sites than over oasis sites and slightly lower over a small-scale oasis than over a large-scale oasis in the morning. At dusk, the RMSEs are higher over desert sites than over oases and slightly higher over a small-scale oasis than over a large-scale oasis. Furthermore, the RMSEs are generally higher in the morning than at dusk over a large-scale oasis and lower in the morning than at dusk over a small-scale oasis. Third, the absolute mean BIAS values are mostly lower than 1 K. In the morning, relative to RAOB temperatures, the retrieval temperatures are higher over desert sites but lower over oasis sites. At dusk, the retrieval temperatures are lower than RAOB temperatures over both desert and oasis sites. The retrieval temperatures are higher than RAOB temperatures over desert sites in the morning but slightly lower at dusk. Most absolute mean BIAS values are higher in the morning than at dusk over both oasis and desert sites. Finally, the consistency between the AIRS and RAOB temperature data is high from 700 hPa to 100 hPa in the morning and from 700 hPa to 300 hPa at dusk. The difference between the AIRS and RAOB temperature data is generally higher in the morning than that at dusk. The RMSE differences between the AIRS and RAOB data are slightly lower in the morning than at dusk and are lower in the middle layers between 700 hPa and 150 hPa than in the layers above 150 hPa during both the morning and night. The BIAS is lower in the morning than at dusk below 300 hPa but higher in the upper layers. Moreover, the BIAS value is positive in the middle layers between 500 hPa and 150 hPa and negative at other levels at both times. Generally, the AIRS retrieval temperatures are reliable and can be used in further studies in the Taklimakan Desert.

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18. Cryosphere evapotranspiration in the Tibetan Plateau: A review
KunXin Wang,YinSheng Zhang,Ning Ma,YanHong Guo,YaoHui Qiang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 355-370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00355
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Land surface actual evapotranspiration is an important process that influences the Earth's energy and water cycles and determines the water and heat transfer in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Meanwhile, the cryosphere's hydrological process is receiving extensive attention, and its water problem needs to be understood from multiple perspectives. As the main part of the Chinese cryosphere, the Tibetan Plateau faces significant climate and environmental change. There are active interaction and pronounced feedback between the environment and ETa in the cryosphere. This article mainly focuses on the research progress of ETa in the Tibetan Plateau. It first reviews the ETa process, characteristics, and impact factors of typical underlying surfaces in the Tibetan Plateau (alpine meadows, alpine steppes, alpine wetlands, alpine forests, lakes). Then it compares the temporal and spatial variations of ETa at different scales. In addition, considering the current greening of cryosphere vegetation due to climate change, it discusses the relationship between vegetation greening and transpiration to help clarify how vegetation activities are related to the regional water cycle and surface energy budget.

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19. Soil freezing process and different expressions for the soil-freezing characteristic curve
JunPing Ren, Sai K. Vanapalli, Zhong Han
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (3): 221-228.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00221
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The soil-freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), which represents the relationship between unfrozen water content and sub-freezing temperature (or suction at ice-water interface) in a freezing soil, can be used for understanding the transportation of heat, water, and solute in frozen soils. In this paper, the soil freezing process and the similarity between the SFCC of saturated frozen soil and soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of unfrozen unsaturated soil are reviewed. Based on similar characteristics between SWCC and SFCC, a conceptual SFCC is drawn for illustrating the main features of soil freezing and thawing processes. Various SFCC expressions from the literature are summarized. Four widely used expressions (i.e., power relationship, exponential relationship, van Genuchten 1980 equation and Fredlund and Xing 1994 equation) are evaluated using published experimental data on four different soils (i.e., sandy loam, silt, clay, and saline silt). Results show that the exponential relationship and van Genuchten (1980) equation are more suitable for sandy soils. The simple power relationship can be used to reasonably best-fit the SFCC for soils with different particle sizes; however, it exhibits limitations when fitting the saline silt data. The Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation is suitable for fitting the SFCCs for all soils studied in this paper.
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20. The mass-balance characteristics and sensitivities to climate variables of Laohugou Glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China
JiZu Chen, ShiChang Kang, Xiang Qin, WenTao Du, WeiJun Sun, YuShuo Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2017, 9 (6): 543-553.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00543
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Due to global warming, glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are experiencing widespread shrinkage; however, the mechanisms controlling glacier variations across the TP are still rather unclear, especially on the northeastern TP. In this study, a physically based, distributed surface-energy and mass-balance model was used to simulate glacier mass balance forced by meteorological data. The model was applied to Laohugou No. 12 Glacier, western Qilian Mountains, China, during 2010~2012. The simulated albedo and mass balance were validated and calibrated by in situ measurements. The simulated annual glacier-wide mass balances were -385 mm water equivalent (w.e.) in 2010/2011 and -232 mm w.e. in 2011/2012, respectively. The mean equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was 5,015 m a.s.l., during 2010~2012, which ascended by 215 m compared to that in the 1970s. The mean accumulation area ratio (AAR) was 39% during the two years. Climatic-sensitivity experiments indicated that the change of glacier mass balance resulting from a 1.5 ℃ increase in air temperature could be offset by a 30% increase in annual precipitation. The glacier mass balance varied linearly with precipitation, at a rate of 130 mm w.e. per 10% change in total precipitation.
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21. Comparison of sampling schemes for spatial prediction of soil organic carbon in Northern China
XuYang Wang,YuQiang Li,YuLin Li,YinPing Chen,Jie Lian,WenJie Cao
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 200-216.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00217.
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Determining an optimal sample size is a key step in designing field surveys, and is particularly important for detecting the spatial pattern of highly variable properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on 550 soil sampling points in the near-surface layer (0 to 20 cm) in a representative region of northern China’s agro-pastoral ecotone, we studied effects of four interpolation methods such as ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and radial basis function (RBF) and random subsampling (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500) on the prediction accuracy of SOC estimation. When the Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Shannon's Evenness Index (SHEI) was 2.01 and 0.67, the OK method appeared to be a superior method, which had the smallest root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean error (ME) nearest to zero. On the contrary, the UK method performed poorly for the interpolation of SOC in the present study. The sample size of 200 had the most accurate prediction; 50 sampling points produced the worst prediction accuracy. Thus, we used 200 samples to estimate the study area's soil organic carbon density (SOCD) by the OK method. The total SOC storage to a depth of 20 cm in the study area was 117.94 Mt, and its mean SOCD was 2.40 kg/m2. The SOCD kg/(C?m2) of different land use types were in the following order: woodland (3.29) > grassland (2.35) > cropland (2.19) > sandy land (1.55).

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22. The influence of the underpassing frozen connecting passage on the deformation of the existing tunnel
JunHao Chen,Jian Zhang,BiJian Chen,Gen Lu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (4): 223-233.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rcar.2022.09.001.
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Based on the engineering background of the contact channel between Shangyang and Gushan of Fuzhou Metro Line 2 undercrossing the existing tunnel line, the freezing temperature field of the contact channel, the displacement field of the existing tunnel line and the contact channel with different net distances and horizontal angles are analyzed by ANSYS finite element software and field measurement method. The obtained results indicate that during the freezing period, the temperature drops at different measuring holes are almost the same. The temperature near the bottom freezing tube drops faster than that far from the tube. It is found that the bilateral freezing technique improves the formation of the freezing wall in the intersection area. In this case, the intersection time of the cross-section is 7 days faster than that of the adjacent ordinary section. The change curve of the displacement of the surface uplift in different freezing periods with the distance from the center of the channel is "M" shaped. The maximum uplift displacement at 12 m from channel center is 25 mm. The vertical displacement of the measuring point located above the central axis of the connecting channel is large. The farther the point from the central axis, the smaller the corresponding vertical displacement. When the horizontal angle between the existing tunnel and the connecting channel is less than 60°, the existing vertical displacement of the tunnel changes rapidly with the horizontal angle, reaching 0.17 mm/°. Meanwhile, when the net distance is less than 6.1 m, the change rate of the vertical displacement of the tunnel is up to 2.4 mm/m.

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23. Uncertainty analysis of runoff and sedimentation in a forested watershed using sequential uncertainty fitting method
Tanveer Abbas, Ghulam Nabi, Muhammad W. Boota, Fiaz Hussain, Muhammad I. Azam, HuiJun Jin, Muhammad Faisal
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2016, 8 (4): 297-310.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2016.00297
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The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was implemented in a small forested watershed of the Soan River Basin in northern Pakistan through application of the sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) method to investigate the associated uncertainty in runoff and sediment load estimation. The model was calibrated for a 10-year period (1991-2000) with an initial 4-year warm-up period (1987-1990), and was validated for the subsequent 10-year period (2001-2010). The model evaluation indices R2 (the coefficient of determination), NS (the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency), and PBIAS (percent bias) for stream flows simulation indicated that there was a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows. To assess the uncertainty in the model outputs, p-factor (a 95% prediction uncertainty, 95PPU) and r-factors (average wideness width of the 95PPU band divided by the standard deviation of the observed values) were taken into account. The 95PPU band bracketed 72% of the observed data during the calibration and 67% during the validation. The r-factor was 0.81 during the calibration and 0.68 during the validation. For monthly sediment yield, the model evaluation coefficients (R2 and NS) for the calibration were computed as 0.81 and 0.79, respectively; for validation, they were 0.78 and 0.74, respectively. Meanwhile, the 95PPU covered more than 60% of the observed sediment data during calibration and validation. Moreover, improved model prediction and parameter estimation were observed with the increased number of iterations. However, the model performance became worse after the fourth iterations due to an unreasonable parameter estimation. Overall results indicated the applicability of the SWAT model with moderate levels of uncertainty during the calibration and high levels during the validation. Thus, this calibrated SWAT model can be used for assessment of water balance components, climate change studies, and land use management practices.
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24. Spatiotemporal change of carbon storage in the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi, based on the InVEST Model
ShaoYang Liu, NingKe Hu, Jin Zhang, ZhiChao Lv
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (3): 240-250.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00240
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In recent years, land use and land cover have under gone tremendous change on the Loess Plateau, leading to temporal and spatial variation over many ecological factors, such as carbon storage. Based on four series of land-use data from remote-sensing imaging, spatiotemporal changes of land-use types and volume changes were analyzed. Combined with carbon-stock-assessment modules of the InVEST (integrated valuation ecosystem services and tradeoffs) model, the carbon-storage change was estimated and analyzed at the subcounty and subbasin scales. The results show that (1) cultivated land and grassland area decreased, while woodland and urban land area increased in northern Shaanxi; (2) the average carbon storage in Huangling County and the Beiluo River Basin is the largest, while that of Yuyang County and the Xinshui River Basin is the minimum, and that of Wuqi County showed the greatest growth; (3) carbon storage in the study area showed a definite decrease in 2000, but in general has increased from 1995 to 2010; (4) carbon-storage figures of subbasins and counties are all restricted by the natural status and land-use landscape of the whole study area. From the results, it can be seen that the effect of ecological policies is remarkable. This study has important implications for the rational planning of land use, adjustment of the ecosystem carbon cycle, and related policies.
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25. Fossil Taiwannia from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China and its phytogeography significance
MingZhen Zhang,BaoXia Du,PeiHong Jin,BaiNian Sun
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (6): 502-515.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00502
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Fossil Taiwania was discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Lingyuan City, western Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It is identified as a new species, Taiwania lingyuanensis sp. nov.. The present specimen is preserved as impressions with well defined leaf shoots system and reproductive structures. Leaves are dimorphic, spirally and imbricately arranged. They are scale-like on the main and cone-bearing branchlets, and subulate to falcate-subulate on the juvenile or sterile shoots. The seed cones are singly elliptic, ovate or elongate-ovate and terminally borne on ultimate shoots, bearing 22–24 scale-bracts complexes imbricately and helically arranged around the cone axis, the bracts are broad-ovate, rhomboidal or hexagonal with entire margins. Both the leafy shoots morphology and reproductive structures are similar to extant Taiwania. Furthermore, geological distribution and molecular biological evidences support that Taiwania is probably originated from the eastern Asia at least in the Early Cretaceous and widely distributed in the North Hemisphere thereafter.

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26. A review of water resources utilization and protection in Southwest China
CuiFang Wu, Steve Déry, WanCai Wu, XueBin Liu, JinHui Xiong, WenQi Gao
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (6): 736-746.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00736
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Yunnan and Guizhou are two provinces in Southwest China where in recent years drought disasters have occurred due to natural and human factors. This paper reviewed literature and summarized the related achievements of water resources utilization and protection in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. This included characters and utilization of precipitation, rivers, and karst ground water in the two provinces, and also the various explanations of drought (climate and human factors) and strategies for coping with droughts. Our concluding remarks highlight three lines of future studies: inequalities and equitable use of water distribution, better evaluation systems, and raising awareness through conservation practices.
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27. Ecophysiological responses to drought stress in Populus euphratica
ChunYan Zhao,JianHua Si,Qi Feng,TengFei Yu,Huan Luo,Jie Qin
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (4): 326-336.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20025.
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Ecophysiological responses to drought stress of Populus euphratica in Alashan Desert Eco-hydrology Experimental Research Station were investigated. Results show that under mild and moderate drought stress, stomatal length, aperture, area and density is likely to decrease in the early days, but afterwards this is likely to recovery with treatment over the passage of treatment time. Under severe drought stress, these properties appear to decline continuously. However, after 45 days of drought-stress treatment, the decline is not as noticeable as before, indicating that Populus euphratica could possibly reduce water evaporation by shutting down the stoma, leading to an improvement in its water use efficiency with better survival under drought stress conditions. The leaf area first decreases, and then increases under mild and moderate drought stress conditions, with the average values under different degree of stress found to be approximately 129.52, 120.08, 116.63 and 107.28 cm2, respectively. Under moderate stress conditions, the leaf water potential appears to show a continuous decline where the average values under different degree of stress are found to be -1.27, -1.85, -4.29 and -4.80 MPa, respectively. In terms of proline content, the results demonstrate that this factor appears to increase significantly under moderate and severe drought stress conditions. Especially under severe drought stress condition, the content is found to be more than 700 μg/g. Ranging over average values of 14.64 and 15.90 nmol/g under moderate and severe drought stress, respectively, Malondialdehyde content is found to increase quite rapidly under moderate and severe drought stress conditions at first, which then appears to decrease gradually with the treatment over time.

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28. Accuracy evaluation of two precipitation datasets over upper reach of Heihe River Basin, northwestern China
SiWei He, ZhuoTong Nan, YuTing Hou
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (2): 157-169.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00157
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As an important forcing data for hydrologic models, precipitation has significant effects on model simulation. The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (ITP) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) precipitation data are the two commonly used data sources in the Heihe River Basin (HRB). This paper focused on evaluating the accuracy of these two precipitation datasets. A set of metrics were developed to characterize the trend, magnitude, annual allocation, event matching, frequency, and spatial distribution of the two datasets. Meanwhile, such accuracy evaluation was performed at various scales, i.e., daily, monthly, and yearly. By comparing with observations, this study concluded that: first, both ITP and GLDAS precipitation data well represented the trends at corresponding sites, and GLDAS underestimated precipitation in most regions except the east tributary headwater region; second, unusual annual precipitation distribution was observed in both datasets with overestimation of precipitation in May through September and GLDAS appeared to be much severe; third, the ITP data seriously over-predicted the precipitation events; fourth, the ITP data have better spatial distribution than GLDAS in the upper reach area of HRB. Overall, we recommended ITP precipitation data for the land surface study in the upper reach of HRB.
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29. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses with different alcoholic solvents
Kehinde O. Olasoji,Amos M. Makinde,Bolajoko A. Akinpelu,Musibau O. Isa
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (5): 382-388.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00382.
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This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffia-palm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

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30. Aeolian processes on sandy desertification of an alpine meadow: A wind tunnel experiment
ZhiShan An,KeCun Zhang,LiHai Tan,BaiCheng Niu,YanPing Yu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (1): 12-21.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00012.
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In recent years, the desertification of alpine meadows has become a serious ecological problem and has gradually become a threat to regional economic activities in Maqu County. To reveal the mechanism for sandy desertification of alpine meadows, we conducted wind tunnel experiments on aeolian processes over sandy alpine meadows. Results show that the sand-flux profile of mix-sized sediment decays exponentially with increasing height. However, the profile pattern of a group of uniform-sized particles depends on the experimental wind speeds. The profile pattern of all the groups studied can be expressed by exponential decay functions when the wind speed is less than or equal to 16 m/s. while that for all the groups studied can be expressed by a Gaussian distribution function when the wind speed is above 16 m/s. The average saltation heights of mixed sands at wind speeds of 12 m/s, 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 24 m/s were 2.74, 4.19, 5.28, and 6.12 cm, respectively. The mean grain size basically first decreases and then increases with increasing height under different wind speeds. The sorting improves with increasing wind speed, while the kurtosis and skewness show relationships with only the characteristics of the parent soil.

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31. Surface-deformation monitoring in the permafrost regions over the Tibetan Plateau, using Sentinel-1 data
ZhenMing Wu, Lin Zhao, Lin Liu, Rui Zhu, ZeShen Gao, YongPing Qiao, LiMing Tian, HuaYun Zhou, MeiZhen Xie
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (2): 114-125.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00114
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Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) has been widely used to measure surface deformation over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the accuracy and applicability of the D-InSAR method are not well estimated due to the lack of in-situ validation. In this paper, we mapped the seasonal and long-term displacement of Tanggula (TGL) and Liangdaohe (LDH) permafrost regions with a stack of Sentinel-1 acquisitions using the Small Baseline Subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR) method. In the TGL region, with its dry soils and sparse vegetation, the InSAR-derived surface-deformation trend was consistent with ground-based leveling results; long-term changes of the active layer showed a settlement rate of around 1 to 3 mm/a due to the melting of ground ice, indicating a degrading permafrost in this area. Around half of the deformation was picked up on monitoring, in contrast with in-situ measurements in LDH, implying that the D-InSAR method remarkably underestimated the surface-deformation. This phenomenon may be induced by the large soil-water content, high vegetation coverage, or a combination of these two factors in this region. This study demonstrates that surface deformation could be mapped accurately for a specific region with Sentinel-1 C-band data, such as in the TGL region. Moreover, although the D-InSAR technology provides an efficient solution for broad surface-deformation monitoring in permafrost regions, it shows a poor performance in the region with high soil-water content and dense vegetation coverage.
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32. Intersection-pavement de-icing: comprehensive review and the state of the practice
Yang ZhaoHui Joey
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2019, 11 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2019.00001
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Winter maintenance operations are crucial for pedestrian and motorist safety and public mobility on urban streets and highways in cold regions, especially during winter storms. This study provides a comprehensive literature review of existing deicing technologies, with emphasis on electrical resistance-heating deicing technologies for possible applications in areas with concentrated traffic, such as street intersections and crosswalks. A thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melting was conducted. The performance of various deicing methods was evaluated and the installation and operation cost of the electrical resistance-heating methods compared. Finally, current state of the practice of intersection/crosswalk winter maintenance was surveyed among state departments of transportation in North America. The intersection/crosswalk winter maintenance procedure adopted by the State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities was described, and the annual winter maintenance and operation cost per intersection was estimated. It was found that the annual energy cost of an electrical resistance-heating method such as the carbon-fiber-tape deicing technology is about the same as the average annual maintenance and operation cost of current practice. In addition, an automatic electrical resistance-heating deicing system will bring benefits such as minimized delay time and improved safety for pedestrian and vehicular traffic in an urban application.

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33. Effect of debris on seasonal ice melt (2016-2018) on Ponkar Glacier, Manang, Nepal
Reeju Shrestha,Rijan B. Kayastha,Rakesh Kayastha
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (5): 261-271.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00261.
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Supraglacial debris is widely present on glaciers in alpine environments and its distribution greatly affects glacier melt. The present study aims to determine the effect of debris on glacier ice melt on Ponkar Glacier, Manang District, Nepal. We estimated ice melt under various debris thickness using Energy Balance (EB) model and conductive heat flux methods, which are compared with in-situ observations. Four stakes are installed on the glacier at different debris thickness of 11-40 cm. Meteorological data from March 2016 to May 2018 are obtained from the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the glacier surface at an elevation of 3,881 m a.s.l. for the energy balance calculation. Debris surface temperature and different debris depths are also measured on the glacier. The calculated ablation rates from the conductive heat flux method are 0.9, 1.62 and 0.41 cm/d on pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon, respectively, with mean debris thermal conductivity 1.04 W/(m?K). The net radiation shows little variation between the seasons, while turbulent heat flux varies in the season. Sensible heat flux was found to be highest in post-monsoon season due to a larger temperature gradient between surface and air.

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34. Simulation and projection of climate change using CMIP6 Muti-models in the Belt and Road Region
YanRan Lü,Tong Jiang,YanJun Wang,BuDa Su,JinLong Huang,Hui Tao
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (6): 389-403.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00389
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Climate condition over a region is mostly determined by the changes in precipitation, temperature and evaporation as the key climate variables. The countries belong to the Belt and Road region are subjected to face strong changes in future climate. In this paper, we used five global climate models from the latest Sixth Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) to evaluate future climate changes under seven combined scenarios of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and the Representative Concentration Pathways (SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP4-3.4, SSP4-6.0 and SSP5-8.5) across the Belt and Road region. This study focuses on undertaking a climate change assessment in terms of future changes in precipitation, air temperature and actual evaporation for the three distinct periods as near-term period (2021-2040), mid-term period (2041-2060) and long-term period (2081-2100). To discern spatial structure, K?ppen-Geiger Climate Classification method has been used in this study. In relative terms, the results indicate an evidence of increasing tendency in all the studied variables, where significant changes are anticipated mostly in the long-term period. In addition to, though it is projected to increase under all the SSP-RCP scenarios, greater increases will be happened under higher emission scenarios (SSP5-8.5 and SSP3-7.0). For temperature, robust increases in annual mean temperature is found to be 5.2 °C under SSP3-7.0, and highest 7.0 °C under SSP5-8.5 scenario relative to present day. The northern part especially Cold and Polar region will be even more warmer (+6.1 °C) in the long-term (2081-2100) period under SSP5-8.5. Similarly, at the end of the twenty-first century, annual mean precipitation is inclined to increase largely with a rate of 2.1% and 2.8% per decade under SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 respectively. Spatial distribution demonstrates that the largest precipitation increases are to be pronounced in the Polar and Arid regions. Precipitation is projected to increase with response to increasing warming most of the regions. Finally, the actual evaporation is projected to increase significantly with rate of 20.3% under SSP3-7.0 and greatest 27.0% for SSP5-8.5 by the end of the century. It is important to note that the changes in evaporation respond to global mean temperature rise consistently in terms of similar spatial pattern for all the scenarios where stronger increase found in the Cold and Polar regions. The increase in precipitation is overruled by enhanced evaporation over the region. However, this study reveals that the CMIP6 models can simulate temperature better than precipitation over the Belt and Road region. Findings of this study could be the reliable basis for initiating policies against further climate induced impacts in the regional scale.

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35. Simulating the effect of wind erosion on aeolian desertification process of Horqin sandy land and its significance on material cycle: a wind tunnel study
CaiXia Zhang,JinChang Li
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2022, 14 (1): 43-53.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2022.21021.
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Samples from the Horqin sandy land were exposed to a series of wind velocities, and sink particles were collected at the end of the diffusion section of a wind tunnel. Grain sizes of collected samples show great variation because of the granularity difference of the surface samples. The original samples show lower average content of SiO2 and higher average content of Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O than collected samples. Compared with other dust source areas in China, the Horqin sandy land had higher content of Zr, Ba, SiO2, Al2O3 and K2O. Compared with the average upper continental crust (UCC) composition, surface samples were rich in the content of Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Nd. Geochemistry characteristics of fine grain components of the Horqin sandy land differ from those from other dust source regions, because fine-grained particles in the Horqin sandy land were mostly derived from various local deposits formed in its unique depositional environments influenced by several tectonic activities.

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36. Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion
XuYang Liu,WenXiao Ning,ZhenTing Wang
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (4): 234-241.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234
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Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

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37. Biodiversity, productivity, and temporal stability in a natural grassland ecosystem of China
Bing Liu, WenZhi Zhao, YangYang Meng, Chan Liu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2018, 10 (4): 293-304.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2018.00293
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Understanding the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function is critical to promoting the sustainability of ecosystems and species conservation in natural ecosystems. We observed species composition, species richness and aboveground biomass, and simulated the competitive assemblages in a natural grassland ecosystem of China, aiming to test some assumptions and predictions about biodiversity–stability relationships. Our results show that aboveground productivity and temporal stability increased significantly with increasing species richness, and via a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony, and portfolio effects. Species interactions resulted in overyielding caused by trait-independent complementarity, and were not offset by a negative dominance effect and trait-dependent complementarity effect. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the biodiversity effect shifted from the selection effect to the complementarity effect as diversity increased, and both effects were coexisted but the complementarity effect represent a mechanism that facilitates long term species coexistence in a natural grassland ecosystem of China.

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38. Characterizing stand structure in a spruce forests: effects of sampling protocols
Jun Du, WeiJun Zhao, ZhiBin He, JunJun Yang, LongFei Chen, Xi Zhu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2015, 7 (3): 245-256.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2015.00245
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Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent characteristic of natural forest landscapes, therefore estimation of structural variability, including the collection and analyzing of field measurements, is a growing challenge for monitoring wildlife habitat diversity and ecosystem sustainability. In this study, we investigated the combined influence of plot shape and size on the accuracy of assessment of conventional and rare structural features in two young-growth spruce-dominated forests in northwestern China. We used a series of inventory schemes and analytical approaches. Our data showed that options for sampling protocols, especially the selection of plot size considered in structural attributes measurement, dramatically affect the minimum number of plots required to meet a certain accuracy criteria. The degree of influence of plot shape is related to survey objectives; thus, effects of plot shape differ for evaluations of the "mean" or "representative" stand structural conditions from that for the range of habitat (in extreme values). Results of Monte Carlo simulations suggested that plot sizes <0.1 ha could be the most efficient way to sample for conventional characteristics (features with relative constancy within a site, such as stem density). Also, 0.25 ha or even larger plots may have a greater likelihood of capturing rare structural attributes (features possessing high randomness and spatial heterogeneity, such as volume of coarse woody debris) in our forest type. These findings have important implications for advisable sampling protocol (plot size and shape) to adequately capture information on forest habitat structure and diversity; such efforts must be based on a clear definition of which types are structural attributes to measure.
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39. Guest Editors Fujun Niu and Jiankun Liu for special Issue International Conference on Permafrost
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2021, 13 (2): 1-1.  
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40. Numerical simulations on cutting of frozen soil using HJC Model
WenQiang Zhang,YongHong Niu
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions    2020, 12 (3): 134-143.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00134
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Numerical simulation is known as an effective method for mechanical properties during frozen soil excavation. In order to reveal the development of cutting force, effective stress and cutting fragments in frozen silt during the cutting process, we introduce an explicit finite element program LS-DYNA to establish a two-dimensional numerical model of the frozen soil cut. We also use the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (HJC) damage constitutive model for simulating the variation of soil mechanical properties according to the strong dependence between the cutting tool and frozen silt during the process with different cutting depths, angles and velocities. Meanwhile, a series of experimental results are acquired of frozen silt cutting to prove the application of the HJC model during simulation of cutting force variations. The result shows that the cutting force and fragment size are strongly influenced by cutting depths and cutting velocities increased, and the maximum effective stress at points where the tool contacts frozen soil during the cutting process. In addition, when the cutting angle is 52°, the cutting force is the smallest, and the cutting angle is optimum. Thus, the prediction of frozen soil mechanical properties on the cutting process by this model is conducive to selecting machinery equipment in the field.

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