Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2020, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (6): 355–370.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00355

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  • 收稿日期:2020-07-01 接受日期:2020-12-15 出版日期:2020-12-31 发布日期:2021-01-14

Cryosphere evapotranspiration in the Tibetan Plateau: A review

KunXin Wang1,2,YinSheng Zhang1,3,6(),Ning Ma4,5,YanHong Guo1,YaoHui Qiang1,2   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4.Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    5.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
    6.China -Pakistan Joint Research Center on Earth Sciences, CAS-HEC, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
  • Received:2020-07-01 Accepted:2020-12-15 Online:2020-12-31 Published:2021-01-14
  • Contact: YinSheng Zhang
  • Supported by:
    the "Strategic Priority Research Program" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA2006020102);the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK0201);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801047);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project(2018M631589);the Open Research Fund Program of State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS(SKLCS-OP-2020-11)


Land surface actual evapotranspiration is an important process that influences the Earth's energy and water cycles and determines the water and heat transfer in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Meanwhile, the cryosphere's hydrological process is receiving extensive attention, and its water problem needs to be understood from multiple perspectives. As the main part of the Chinese cryosphere, the Tibetan Plateau faces significant climate and environmental change. There are active interaction and pronounced feedback between the environment and ETa in the cryosphere. This article mainly focuses on the research progress of ETa in the Tibetan Plateau. It first reviews the ETa process, characteristics, and impact factors of typical underlying surfaces in the Tibetan Plateau (alpine meadows, alpine steppes, alpine wetlands, alpine forests, lakes). Then it compares the temporal and spatial variations of ETa at different scales. In addition, considering the current greening of cryosphere vegetation due to climate change, it discusses the relationship between vegetation greening and transpiration to help clarify how vegetation activities are related to the regional water cycle and surface energy budget.

Key words: cryosphere evapotranspiration, Tibetan Plateau, transpiration, evaporation




No.StationUnderlayLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)PeriodP (mm)ETa (mm)MethodReference
1Selin CoLake31.57°N-31.95°N88.55°E-89.35°E4,5431961-2015-1,066.9Single-layer modelGuo et al., 2019
2003-2012333.31074P-M equationZhou et al., 2016
2Zigetng CoLake32.00°N-32.15°N90.73°E-90.95°E4,5601958-1998-925.1P-M equationLi et al., 2001
3Nam CoLake30.50°N-30.95°N90.20°E-91.05°E4,7101980-2014-832.0Flake modelLazhu et al., 2016
1979-2012-635.0CRLE modelMa et al., 2016
2006-2008415.0658.0HBE equationHaginoya et al., 2009
4Yandrok YumcoLake28.27°N-29.18°N90.35°E-91.08°E4,4421961-2005358.71,252.5HBE equationYu et al., 2011
5NgoringLake34.77°N-35.08°N97.53°E-97.90°E4,2742011-2012-436.0 (Jun.-Nov.)ECLi et al., 2015
6QinghaiLake36.53°N-37.25°N99.60°E-100.78°E3,1942013.5-2015.5367.0828.1ECLi et al., 2016
7WayanAlpine wetland37.73°N100.08°E3,7532015420.9362.1ECCao et al., 2019
8ZoigeAlpine wetland33.90°N102.80°E3,400-3,8002018.6-2018.8248.6270.0ECChen et al., 2020
9LongbaoAlpine wetland33.20°N96.50°E4,2082012.5-2012.10167.4337.4BREBQuan et al., 2016
10JiuzhaigouConifer and broadleaf mixed forest33.16°N103.88°E2,47820141003.0700.0ECYan et al., 2017
11GonggaConiferous forest29.57°N102.00°E3,06020052042366BREBZhou et al., 2010
12GuantanSub-alpine spruce forest38.53°N100.25°E2,700-3,4002011428.0417.0ECZhu et al., 2013
13KMdAlpine meadow37.58°N100.04°E3,5302012.7-2013.6580.2493.2BREBZhang et al., 2016



PeriodMulti-year average ETa (mm)MethodReference
1982-2009345.0RS-PM modelLi et al., 2014
1982-2008350.0MTEJung et al., 2010; Song et al., 2017
2001-2010320.0Modified Priestley-Taylor modelYao et al., 2013; Song et al., 2017
2001-2014389.7MOD16 productZhan et al., 2017
2000-2010350.3Modified PM-Mu (2011) modelSong et al., 2017
1981-2010255.8LPJ modelYin et al., 2013a
1982-2012378.1PML modelWang et al., 2018
1982-2017377.9CR modelMa et al., 2019


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