Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2021, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (2): 77–86.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2021.20046

• • 上一篇    下一篇


  • 收稿日期:2020-06-08 接受日期:2021-01-19 出版日期:2021-04-30 发布日期:2021-05-11

Artificially frozen ground and related engineering technology in Japan

Satoshi Akagawa()   

  1. Cryosphere Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan
  • Received:2020-06-08 Accepted:2021-01-19 Online:2021-04-30 Published:2021-05-11
  • Contact: Satoshi Akagawa


Since the 1970's, frozen ground has been developing near the Tokyo Bay area around liquefied natural gas (LNG) in-ground storage tanks. For disaster prevention purposes, the tanks are constructed below the ground surface. Since the temperature of the liquid stored in the tanks is -162 °C the soil surrounding the tanks freezes. Since this frozen ground has existed for almost half a century, we have permafrost near Tokyo. The development of artificial frozen ground may cause frost heaving, resulting in frost heave forces that may cause structural damage of adjacent LNG in-ground storage tanks. Therefore, the demand for frozen ground engineering increased and consequently we now have advanced technology in this area. Fortunately, we use this engineering technology and artificial ground freezing for civil engineering, especially in big and crowded cities like Tokyo. This paper provides a summary of the testing apparatus, test methods, and assessment methods for frost heaving.

Key words: artificial ground freezing, frost heave, frozen ground engineering

Akagawa S, 1988. Experimental study of frozen fringe characteristics. Journal of Cold Regions Science and Technology, 15: 209-223.
Akagawa S, 1990. X-ray photography method for experimental studies of the frozen fringe characteristics of freezing soil. U.S.A. CRREL Special Report 90-5.
Akagawa S, 1997. Winter Earthworks in Seasonal Freezing Regions Ought to Become an Accepted Construction Method—Frost heaving accelerates the consolidation of filling materials. Proc. Eighth International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Lukea, Sweden: 65-72.
Akagawa S, 2016. Phenomena of frost heaving and engineering difficulties caused by frost heaving. International Cold Regions Oil & Gas Seminar, Sole: 143-168.
Akagawa S, Goto S, Saito A, 1988. Segregation freezing observed in welded tuff by open system frost heave test. Proc. Fifth International Conference on Permafrost. Trondheim, Norway: 1030-1035.
Akagawa S, Yamamoto Y, Hashimoto S, 1985. Frost heave characteristics and scale effect of stationary frost heave. Proc. Fourth International Symposium on Ground Freezing. Sapporo, Japan: 137-143.
Amanuma C, Kanauchi T, Akagawa S, et al., 2017. Evaluation of frost heave pressure characteristics in transverse direction to heat flow. Procedia Engineering, 171: 461-468.
Beskow, 1935. Soil Freezing and Frost Heaving with Special Applications to Roads and Railroads. The Swedish Geological Society. (Translated by Osterberg JO.). Technological Institute, Northwestern University.
Black PB, Hardenberg MJ, 1991. Historical perspective of frost heave research. CRREL Special Report: 91-23.
Chamberlain EJ, 1981. Frost susceptibility of soil—Review of index tests. CRREL Monograph 81-2.
Chamberlain EJ, Gow AJ, 1978. Effect of freezing and thawing on the permeability and structure of soils. First International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum, West Germany, 31-44.
Goto S, Ryokai K, 1980. Frost action of the soil surrounding a LNG inground storage tank, Second International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Trondheim, Norway: 1049-1059.
Goto S, Watanabe O, Igro M, et al., 1985. The measurement of frost heaving pressure on an LNGinground tank. Fourth International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Sapporo, Japan: 337-341.
Japanese Geotechnical Society, 2009. Test Method for Frost Heave Prediction of Soils (JGS 0171-2009). URL:.
Johansson S, 1914. Die Festigkeit der Bodenarten bei verschiedenem Wassergehalt. S.G.U.,Ser. C,no. 256: 145. in Osterberg JO's English translation (1947) of Beskow (1935).
Miyata Y, Minami Y, Akagawa S, 1994. Measuring unfrozen pore water pressure at the ice-lens forming front. Proc. Seventh International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Noncy, France: 157-162.
Penner E, 1961. Ice-grain structure and crystal orientation in an ice lens from Leda Clay, GSA Bulletin, 72(10): 1575-1577.
Runeberg EO, 1765. Anma¨rkningar om na¨gre fo¨ra¨indringar pa¨ jord-ytan i alima¨nhet, och under de kalla Climatisynnierhet. KunglicaVerensk, Akademiens Handlingar, 81-115.
Taber SM, 1929. Frost heaving. The Journal of Geology, 37: 428-461.
Taber SM, 1930. The mechanics of frost heaving. Samma Tidskrift, 38: 303-317.
Takagi S, 1979. Segregation freezing as the cause of suction force for ice lens formation, Engineering Geology, 13: 93-100.
Takashi T, Yamamoto H, Ohrai T, et al., 1978. Effect of penetration rate of freezing and confining stress on the frost heave ratio of soil. Third International Conference on Permafrost, Ottawa, Canada: 736-742.
No related articles found!
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!