Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions ›› 2017, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (5): 438-446.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2017.00438

• ARTICLES • Previous Articles    

A mathematical approach to evaluate maximum frost heave of unsaturated silty clay

Lin Geng1,2,3, XianZhang Ling2,3, Liang Tang2,3, Jun Luo2,3, XiuLi Du1   

  1. 1. Beijing Key Lab of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Retrofit, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China;
    2. School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, China;
    3. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2017-01-03 Revised:2017-06-22 Published:2018-11-23
  • Contact: Liang Tang,,
  • Supported by:
    We gratefully acknowledge support for this research from the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (Grant No. 41430634), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41702382, 51578195, 51378161, and 51308547), the Foundation Project Program 973 of China (No. 2012CB026104), and the State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Grant No. SKLGDUEK1209).

Abstract: Maximum frost heave of unsaturated frost-susceptible soils, in conjunction with a high water table, is an important consideration for the design of foundations in seasonally frozen regions. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate accurately and efficiently the maximum frost heave for a given soil. For this purpose, a series of one-sided freezing experiments was conducted on unsaturated silty clay in an open system. Multistage cooling of sufficient duration was applied to the soil sample's top, while constant above-zero temperatures were maintained at the bottom. Then, a simple methodology for calculating maximum frost heave at a given cooling temperature was derived utilizing information obtained within the limited time allotted for each stage. On this basis, an empirical equation for defining maximum frost heave as a function of cooling temperature and overburden pressure was determined. Overall, this study provides a simple and practical procedure that is applicable to the evaluation of maximum frost heave of unsaturated frost-susceptible soils.

Key words: mathematical approach, maximum frost heave, multistage freezing experiment, unsaturated silty clay

Abzhalimov RS, Golovko NN, 2009. Laboratory investigations of the pressure dependence of the frost heaving of soil. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 46(1): 31–38. DOI: 10.1007/s11204-009-9040-5.
Black PB, 1995. Rigid ice model of secondary frost heave. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Corps of Engineers.
Cheng GD, He P, 2001. Linearity engineering in permafrost areas. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 23(3): 213–217. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-0240.2001.03.001.
Everett DH, 1961. The thermodynamics of frost damage to porous solids. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 57: 1541–1551. DOI: 10.1039/TF9615701541.
Fremond M, Mikkola M, 1991. Thermomechanical modelling of freezing soil. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ground Freezing. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 17.
Konrad JM, Morgenstern NR, 1980. A mechanistic theory of ice lens formation in fine-grained soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 17(4): 473–486. DOI: 10.1139/t80-056.
Lai YM, Pei WS, Zhang MY, et al., 2014. Study on theory model of hydro-thermal-mechanical interaction process in saturated freezing silty soil. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 78: 805–819. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.07.035.
Ma W, Wang DY, 2012. Studies on frozen soil mechanics in China in past 50 years and their prospect. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 34(4): 625–640.
Ma W, Zhang LH, Yang CS, 2015. Discussion of the applicability of the generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the frozen fringe process. Earth-Science Reviews, 142: 47–59. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.003.
Michalowski RL, Zhu M, 2006. Frost heave modelling using porosity rate function. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 30(8): 703–722. DOI: 10.1002/nag.497.
Nixon JF, 1991. Discrete ice lens theory for frost heave in soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 28(6): 843–859. DOI: 10.1139/t91-102.
O'Neil K, Miller RD, 1985. Exploration of a rigid ice model of frost heave. Water Resources Research, 21(3): 281–296. DOI: 10.1029/WR021i003p00281.
Penner E, Ueda T, 1977. The dependence of frost heaving on load application-preliminary results. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frost Action in Soils, vol. 1. Lulea, Sweden: Luleå University of Technology, pp. 137–142.
Peppin S, Majumdar A, Style R, et al., 2011. Frost heave in colloidal soils. SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 71(5): 1717–1732. DOI: 10.1137/100788197.
Sheng DC, Zhang S, Yu ZW, et al., 2013. Assessing frost susceptibility of soils using PC Heave. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 95: 27–38. DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2013.08.003.
Singh AK, Chaudhary DR, 1995. Evaluation of heat and moisture transfer properties in a frozen-unfrozen water-soil system. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 38(12): 2297–2303. DOI: 10.1016/0017-9310(94)00283-2.
Taber S, 1930. The mechanics of frost heaving. The Journal of Geology, 38(4): 303–317. DOI: 10.1086/623720.
Wang JY, Hu YF, 2004. A discussion on frost-heaving force on tunnel lining. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 26(1): 112–119. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-0240.2004.01.017.
Xu XZ, Wang JC, Zhang LX, 2001. Frozen Soil Physics. Beijing: Science Press.
Zhao G, Tao XX, Liu B, 2009. Experimental study on water migration in undisturbed soil during freezing and thawing process. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 31(12): 1952–1957.
Zheng H, Kanie SJ, 2015. Combined thermal-hydraulic-mechanical frost heave model based on Takashi’s equation. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 29(4): 04014019. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000089.
Zhou JZ, Li DQ, 2012. Numerical analysis of coupled water, heat and stress in saturated freezing soil. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 72: 43–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.11.006.
Zhou Y, Zhou GQ, 2012. Intermittent freezing mode to reduce frost heave in freezing soils—experiments and mechanism analysis. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 49(6): 686–693. DOI: 10.1139/T2012-028.
No related articles found!
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!