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Coping with water scarcity in Kashafroud G-WADI Basin,Iran: climate change or growing demands?
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Citation of this paper:Sedigheh Torabi Palatkaleh,Niloofar Sadeghi,Kobra Estiri,Meisam Ashouri,2013.Coping with water scarcity in Kashafroud G-WADI Basin,Iran: climate change or growing demands?.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions,5(1):0096~0108.
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Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Sedigheh Torabi Palatkaleh Water Engineering, Head of Water Allocation Group, Ministry of Energy, Iran (storabi@wrm.ir) storabi@wrm.ir 
Niloofar Sadeghi Water Management, Prgramme Officer for Natural Sciences, UNESCO Tehran Cluster Office (n.sadeghi@unesco.org)  
Kobra Estiri Water Allocation Group, Ministry of Energy, Iran (kobbeh2003@yahoo.com)  
Meisam Ashouri Water Allocation Group, Ministry of Energy, Iran (meisam.ashuri@gmail.com)  
 
Abstract:This paper assesses the various factors contributing to climate change in the region of the Kashafroud G-WADI Basin in Iran; quantifies the local impacts of climate change, especially local water scarcity; and simulates and discusses several proposed methods to combat these impacts. Hydrologic and climatic data are statistically analyzed and VENSIM modeling is used for various simulations of water resources in the basin. Results show that the natural climate changes affecting Kashafroud Basin include increased temperature, less rainfall, more frequent droughts, and changes in rainfall patterns, all of which are local symptoms of climate change in recent years. However, the most important challenge in the basin is the overexploitation of surface and groundwater resources to meet the growing water demands, especially domestic needs. Changes in land use, reallocation of water uses, groundwater depletion, and degradation of the quality of surface waters have all contributed to significant changes in the environmental features of this basin, and are the main reason why water demands now exceed the renewal capacity of the basin. Proposed response measures include reallocation of resources among different uses, inter-basin water transfers, drawing water from six small dams on the Kashafroud River, reducing groundwater extraction, and replacing groundwater extraction for agriculture by reuse of urban wastewater. This study concludes that although changes in global climatic parameters have altered environmental features in the basin, local factors, such as water utilization beyond the renewable capacity of the basin, are more significant in worsening the impacts of climate change.
keywords:climate change  drought  water resource management  groundwater depletion  Kashafroud G-WADI Basin  urban drinking water demand  inter basin water transfer  Hariroud River
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